The Complete Book of Romans:


NEW!   The JMNT Blue Bold Edition (Romans)

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This is a work that seeks to give the reader some involvement in the process of translating by presenting a range of semantic meanings of significant Greek words in the midst of the text.

In each passage, read the BLUE BOLD type first without the additional meanings.  Then read it with the other word meanings.  Prayerfully consider the possible meanings and the context and let the Holy Spirit give you understanding and revelation.







1.  Paul, Jesus Christ’s slave (or: a slave servant of and from [the] Anointed One, Jesus; a slave belonging to Jesus [the] Anointed [= Messiah]), a called person, one sent forth with a mission (or: an ambassador or emissary by invitation), being one having been marked off by boundaries (fully parted and determined by bounds; separated away and limited off; delineated; defined) unto God’s good news (or: into a message of goodness and well-being which is God),

2.  which He Himself previously promised through His prophets, within [the] set-apart writings (or: holy and sacred Scriptures),

3.  about (concerning; with reference to) His Son – the One coming into existence (or: birthing Himself) from out of David’s sperm (or: Davidic seed; = David's descendant), down from and in the line of succession of flesh (or: = in the sphere of the natural realm);

4.  the One being bounded (marked off, thus defined; separated, and so designated; divided away, and so determined; or: appointed) God’s Son (or: a Son Who is God; or: a Son from, or having the character and qualities of, God; = God's Regent, cf Ps. 2; 2 Sam. 7:14) immersed within the midst of power and in union with ability, down from (or: corresponding to and on a level with; in the sphere of) a Breath-effect of set-apartness (or: an attitude of holiness and sacredness; a spirit pertaining to being set apart) forth from out of a resurrection (a standing back up again) from among dead folks – Jesus Christ, our Lord (Master and Owner),

5.  through Whom we receive grace, as well as a sending off with a mission [leading] unto faith’s obedience (or: obedience that springs from trust and loyalty; [the] paying attention associated with loyal allegiance; or, as apposition: "obedience which faith is" – Rudolf Bultmann) among all the ethnic multitudes, over [the essence, reality and power of] His Name                                                                                                        

(or: through means of Whom we at one point received a joy-producing act of favor, and then suddenly took in hand a commission as emissaries with a view to a humble and submissive hearkening – along with an appropriate response, which is faithfulness – and a giving-of-the-ear from beneath [Him], with compliant listening and paying attention that has its source in trust and involved commitment, within all the non-Jewish nations for the sake of and in behalf of His Name [and reputation]),

6.  within the midst of which peoples (or: among whom) you yourselves are continuously existing, being also called folks of Jesus Christ (or: Jesus Christ’s invited ones)

7.  to (or: for) all those being in Rome: God’s loved ones (folks dearly loved of God), set-apart (holy) called ones, joyous grace and peace to you (or: favor and harmony [= shalom] [are] in and with you) from God, our Father and Lord, Jesus Christ (or: from our Father God, and [the] Master, Jesus Christ; or: from God our Father, even [the] Owner – [the] Anointed Jesus).


8.  First, indeed, I am constantly giving thanks to my God (or: expressing the well-being and goodness in the grace and favor by my God) – through Jesus Christ – about (with reference to; concerning) all of you folks, because (or: that) your faith, trust and loyalty are being repeatedly proclaimed (or: announced) down within (= throughout the midst of) the whole ordered System (world of culture, economy, government and religion; or: = the Roman Empire).

9.  For you see, God is my Witness (or: continuously exists being my Evidence) – to, in and with Whom I continuously render service (or: for Whom I am hired to constantly work), within my spirit (or: in union with my Breath-effect; in my attitude), within His Son’s good news (or: in union with the message of goodness, ease and well-being pertaining to, coming from, having the character of, and which is, His Son) – how unintermittingly (without intervals in between; unceasingly) I am habitually constructing a memory (or: producing a recollection) pertaining to you (or: making mention of you folks),

10.  always upon my thoughts and expressions toward having things go well (or: my prayers), continuously requesting (or: asking) if by any means (or: somehow), at length, I shall sometime be prospered along the path within God’s will and purpose to come to you folks and be face to face with you,

11.  for I constantly long (or: am increasingly yearning) to see you, to the end that I may share and exchange some spiritual effect of favor with you folks (or: mutually partner in the impartation to you people, and among you, of some gift that is a result of grace and which has its source in the Breath-effect) [leading] into the [situation for] you to be established (firmly settled and made steadfast; stabilized).

12.  Now this means to be called together to be side-by-side for an interchange of aid, encouragement or consolation among you folks, through the faith and trust within each other – both yours and mine.

13.  Yet I do not want you to continue to fail to know (or: be unaware or remain ignorant), brothers (= fellow believers and members of the Family), that I often set before myself (purposed and proposed) to come (or: go) to you – and I was prevented until now (up to this point) – to the end that I may have (or: could hold and enjoy) some fruit within you folks (or: among you), correspondingly as also [I do] within (or: among) the remaining ethnic multitudes (or: the rest of the nations – the non-Israelites; the Gentiles).


14.  I am (or: I continue being) a debtor to (or: for; or: with) both Greeks (Hellenists) and to (for; with) barbarians (non-Hellenists: those who do not possess Greek culture); to (or: for; with) both wise ones and to (for; with) those without understanding (unintelligent ones; foolish ones; folks who lack sense).

15.  In this condition (or: Thus so) commensurate with me, the ready (willing; eager) one – [I] myself [desire and intend] to also bring and proclaim (or: announce) the message of goodness, ease and well-being (or: Good News) to and among you folks (or: for you folks) in Rome, for you see, I am not in the habit of being ashamed of (= I am proud of and thrilled about) the Good News (message of goodness, ease and well-being; [other MSS add: of, from  and which is Christ]).

16.  You see, God’s power (or: [the] ability of God; capacity from God; or: a power which is God) is unto deliverance (or: exists [leading] into rescue, salvation, health, wholeness and restoration to the original state and condition) for everyone (or: in all; to everyone) – to, for, in and with the person continuously having faith and trusting (or: believing and relying upon [it]; being faithful): for (to; in) [the] Jew first, also for (to; in) [the] Greek (or: = non-Jew)

            (or: – to not only the believing/trusting Jew, but also, firstly {or: primarily}, to the Hellenist as well)

17.  for by Him (or: in it) God’s justice (solidarity in fair conduct; equity; righteousness; [covenantal] qualities of the Way pointed out; way of righting what is wrong; right relationship [with us]; or: a means of turning us in the right direction by an eschatological deliverance, which is God,) is continuously and progressively being unveiled (revealed; disclosed), from out of faithfulness (or: forth from the midst of faith, trust and conviction), [proceeding] into faith, trust, conviction and loyalty, according as it has been written,

"But the one righteous (or: just) out-of-faith/faithfulness will himself continue living (or: Yet the Just One will experience life in himself from faith/faithfulness; or: Now the one in accord with the Way pointed out from trust, will in himself be living; or: And the person rightwised from out of faith will continuously live; or: So the One being fair and equitable from trust will progressively receive life into Himself from that trust)." [Hab. 2:4]

18.  But you see, God’s personal emotion (or: mental bent; natural impulse; teeming desire and swelling passion; temperament; disposition; or: anger; wrath; or: an inherent fervor, which is God,) is continuously and progressively being unveiled (revealed; disclosed) from heaven upon every irreverence (lack of awe or absence of pious fear; disrespect) and injustice (wrong; unrighteousness; situation or act contrary to the Way pointed out) of mankind (or: that arises from humans) the folks continuously holding down (restraining; stopping while possessing) the Truth (or: reality) in the sphere of (or: within the midst of) injustice (unrighteousness; that which is not right; unfairness and inequality)

19.  simply because the thing experientially known (or: personally knowable; able to be gained by insight) pertaining to God (or: from, and which has its origin in, God; which is God) is continuously made visible (made apparent; manifested by light) within (or: among) them, for God at one point made (or: makes) it visible (manifests it) to them (or: for them; in them; by them; among them).

20.  For you see, from [the] creation (framing; founding of order out of chaos; settling) of [the] ordered System (cosmos; universe; or: world of culture, religion and government) His invisible things (unseen [qualities and attributes]) – both His imperceptible (unobservable, but effecting-all) power, ability and capacity, as well as divinity (Godship; God-state) are habitually seen down the line (or: are normally correspondingly perceived), being continually apprehended (grasped by the mind; mentally conceived) in the results and by the effects of things which are made or done, in order for them to be continuously defenseless (without an excuse),

21.  simply because, although at one point experientially knowing God with insight, they did (or: do) not glorify (imagine; esteem; suppose; fancy; conjecture about; hold an opinion of; repute) [Him] as God, or even thank [Him] (or: give thanks in joyously expressing the goodness and well-being inherent in [His] grace and favor).  And so in contrast, they were made futile (vain; fruitless; without profit; empty; useless; worthless; subject to a process of meaningless frustration; subject to exercises in futility) in their reasonings (or: thought processes; dialogues; ideas that went throughout in every direction), and their [collective] unintelligent (stupid; unable-to-put-things-together) heart was darkened (= the core of their being was made to experience an absence of light in a dim, shadowy gloom of obscurity [= ignorance]).


22.  [So] continuously claiming (asserting; alleging with pretense) to be wise ones, they were made to be dull (sluggish; moronic; stupid; foolish)

23.  and they at once changed (or: exchange in barter; make other than it is) the glory (or: splendor and praise-inducing manifestation; or: esteem; opinion; imagination; supposition; thought; appearance; honorable consideration) of the imperishable (un-ruinable; unspoilable and incorruptible; non-decayable) God within the result of a likeness (resemblance; conformed similarity; copy-effect) of an image (form; appearance) of a perishable (corruptible; spoilable) human, as well as of flying things and of four-footed [animals] and of creeping things.

24.  Wherefore (or: On which account) God gave (or: hands) them over (or: delivered or delivers them into another's power), within the full passions (or: rushing passionate cravings; added earnest desires, wants and wishes; or: compiled angers and complete wrath) of their hearts, into uncleanness (or: ritual impurity), to be continuously dishonored and shamed – with respect to (or: pertaining to) their bodies – among (or: within) themselves,

25.  whichever folks altered or exchange God’s truth (or: the reality from and which is God, and which pertains to God) to and for something else, within (or: in union with) The Lie, then they were adored and venerated with dread, and next rendered religious service to and for the creation (or: creature; or: forming, framing, founding and settling which brought order from chaos) alongside (or: to the side of; parallel to; or: = rather than) the Creator (The One framing and founding) Who is (continuously exists being) well spoken of (praised; blessed; eulogized; or: is One filled with thoughts of goodness and well-being) on into the ages. It is so (Amen)!


26.  Because of this (or: Wherefore) God gave, or hands, them over (delivered, or delivers, them into the power of someone else) into experiences of dishonor (or: ignoble sufferings; situations of being unvalued; unworthy passions), for even their females at one point altered (or: alter; change or exchange) the natural use into the [use which is] off to the side of (or: beside; = other than) nature (or: a natural condition; natural production; a generated situation).

27.  And likewise (or: So in like manner) also the males, sending away (or: abandoning; leaving) the natural use of the female, were set aflame within their cravings unto (or: into) one another; males in males continuously producing (accomplishing; effecting; working down) shameless indecency, and constantly taking away (or: receiving back) the necessary retribution (return compensation; the opposite of a reward; the anti-payment) of their wandering (or: the corresponding wage which is binding, pertaining to their straying and deception) within the midst of, or among, themselves.

28.  And then, correspondingly as they did not (or: to the same degree as they do not) put God to the proof and so approve [Him] as fit and suitable, to be continuously holding [Him] within full experiential knowledge (or: having [Him] in union with added intimate insight; or: possessing [Him] in recognition and acknowledgment), God gave them over (hands or delivers them) into a mind which fails to meet the test (a disqualified mind) to continuously do (practice; make) things that consistently are not fitting (not reaching the proper level),

29.  being people having been filled with all injustice – so that they are now full of every inequity and unfairness which lacks rightwised relationships and right actions – [as well as] worthlessness (or: criminality; unprofitableness; badness of condition; misery-gushed existence), inordinate, anti-social desire for more (or: ruthless, aggressive and self-assertive greed for advantage), ugliness (poorness of quality; malice); folks very full of (or: replete with) jealousy and envy, murder, strife (or: contentiousness), bait for entrapment, [and] with a settled habit of evil and a disposition of depravity.

30.  [They are] whisperers (or: gossipers, i.e., folks who disseminate detrimental information about other people), slanderers, haters (detesters) of God, overbearing and outrageous folks, haughty and arrogant people, ostentatious and vainglorious ones, inventors of ugly, worthless and bad things, [being] incompliant (stubborn; disobedient) to parents,

31.  unintelligent (stupid; unable to cause things to flow together), covenant-breakers (or: folks bound by no arrangement or who are false to agreements; not put-together), folks without natural affection, people unwilling to make a treaty (or: implacable), unmerciful folks,

32.  those who, fully knowing by experience (being fully aware of) the effect of God’s justice (or: the result of God's fairness and equity; or: the result of what is right, from the way pointed out, which is God; or: God's decree of the Way pointed out) that those continually performing (committing; executing) such things are folks deserving (worthy; of equivalent value) of death – not only keep on doing the same things, but also are constantly mutually approving, taking pleasure in and consenting with those habitually performing (or: committing; practicing) them.




1.  Wherefore (or: Because of which) you continue to be without a defense or an excuse, O human – everyone continually judging (pronouncing a judgment; separating, evaluating and making decisions; determining) for within that which you continue judging the other person (or: the different one), you are correspondingly evaluating (or: commensurately deciding about; condemning) yourself, since you who are continually judging are constantly performing (committing; practicing) the very same things!


2.  Now we have seen and thus know (or: are aware) that result of God’s judgment (decision rendered; separation; determination) is down from, in line with and accords to Truth and reality, [coming] upon those habitually performing or committing such things.

3.  Yet you continue logically thinking (reckoning; counting on) this, O human – the one continuously judging those who are normally performing or committing such things, and yet are also a person habitually doing the same things – that you will proceed in making an escape out of the result of God’s judgment (the effect of a decision from God)?

4.  Or, are you continually having a "down-oriented" frame of mind (or: despising; thinking with disrespect; or: = a negative disposition) concerning the riches (or: wealth) of His kind and gentle usefulness (sweetly-disposed benevolence; kindness), of the tolerant delay in holding back with forbearance, and of the pushing far away of anger in patient longsuffering?  [Are you] continuing ignorant that God’s kind and gentle usefulness (sweetly-disposed benevolence) is continuously leading you into a change of mind and purpose (a paradigm shift; or: a change of heart and thinking, accompanied by a turn, or a return, to God)?

5.  Yet down from your hardness (or: in line with and in accord to your obstinacy) and an unrepentant heart (= unchanged thinking and affection in the center of your being) you habitually collect and lay up stores of personal emotion in yourself (or: progressively treasure up to yourself inherent fervor, passionate impulse and a mental bent or a disposition; or: periodically bank for yourself anger, indignation or wrath) within a day of personal emotion (fervor; passion; anger; etc.) and of an unveiling of a decision of rightwising from God

(or: of a revealing of God’s verdict regarding fair and equitable dealing; of an uncovering of a just judgment which is God; of a disclosure of a separation for a decision having the character of the Way pointed out from God; of a disclosure from God's right evaluation),

6.  Who will progressively award in each person (or: habitually give back to or pay for each one) down from (in line with; in accord to; to the level of) his works (actions; deeds):

7.  in those (to those; for those), on the one hand, in accord with [the] patient endurance (humbly remaining under for persistent support) of a good work (or: virtuous action) [who] are constantly seeking glory (a good reputation; a manifestation of that which calls forth praise) and honor (value; worth) and incorruptibility (or: incorruption) life which belongs to, is connected with, and is proper to the Age (or: eonian life; the life of and for the ages).

8.  Yet, on the other hand, in those (to those; for those) out of a work for ambitious, factious or contentious purposes, and in (or: by) being continuously incompliant (disobedient; unwilling to be persuaded) to (or: by) the Truth (reality; veritable essence), but constantly compliant (obedient; persuaded) in, to, by and for the injustice (inequity; that which is not in accord with the Way pointed out), [there will be] personal emotion (or: inherent fervor; passionate impulse; anger; indignation; wrath; a habit of mind; a mental bent or disposition) and rushing of feelings (or: intense passion of the mind; violent breathing; glowing animation; turbulent commotion of the mind; or: rage; fury),

9.  pressure (affliction; trouble; tribulation; ordeal) and squeezed narrowness (tight restriction; distress; anguish) upon every soul of mankind which is persistently in himself working down and effecting the bad (the ugly; the worthless; the evil; the injurious; the bad situation; the worthless quality; the malicious intent) both of a Jew, first, and also of a Greek (or: one of the Hellenist culture);

10.  but yet glory (a manifestation of that which calls forth praise; a creditable reputation) and honor (value; worth) and peace (or: harmony; [=Shalom]) in, to, for and with everyone habitually working and accomplishing in or for himself the Good (or: the virtuous and excellent) both in, to, and for a Jew, first, and then also in, to and for a Greek (or: to not only the Jew, but also, firstly {or: primarily}, to the Hellenist);

11.  for partiality (favoritism; receiving on the basis of faces, countenances or personalities) does not exist alongside of God (or: by God’s side; = with God or in His presence and dealings).

12.  For you see, as many as (or: however many) miss the goal (or: sin; fail; or: erred; missed the target due to lack of ability or through distraction) without (a) law [= Torah?], without (a) law will progressively lose and continue destroying themselves; and as many as (or: however many) within law (or: within [the] Law [= Torah]) miss the goal (sin; sinned; fail; deviated), through law (or: [the] Law) will be judged (separated, evaluated and decided upon),

13.  for [it is] not the hearers of [the] Law (= the ones instructed in the Law, or who listen to the Torah) [that are] just ones (rightwised folks who are in right relationships in accord with the Way pointed out; fair and equitable ones) by God’s side (= with God and in His sight and presence), but rather the doers of [the] Law (= the folks performing deeds of the Torah, and producing the character and qualities of the Law) [who] will continue being made right and just (constituted in the Way pointed out; or: pronounced as being fair, equitable and in right relationship).


14.  You see, whenever ethnic multitudes (or: [certain] Gentiles; or: [some] non-Israelite nations; = pagans) those not having a law (or: [the] Law) by nature – may normally do the things of the Law (= Torah), these, [although] not having a law (or: [the] Law), are in and among themselves a law (or: continuously exist being a principle, or custom, for or to themselves),

15.  which very ones continuously display (exhibit; show outward proof by demonstration) the work of the Law (or: action and conduct of that law and principle) written within their hearts, their conscience (the knowing with themselves; awareness; integrated recognition from what has been seen) continually bearing joint-testimony (giving confirming witness and evidence, together), and, in between each other’s calculations (or: logical thoughts), also constantly accusing (speaking down [against] in the assembly) or defending themselves (or: and in the mean time one another’s reasonings and reckonings constantly accusing, or even repeatedly excusing themselves).

16.  God is presently judging (or: continues deciding and is progressively separating off and evaluating) the hidden things of humanity (or: the things concealed from humans, [but which] belong to people) within, and in union with, the Day – commensurate with my good news (or: according to and following the pattern of my message of goodness, ease and well-being) through Jesus Christ [with other MSS: by means of Jesus [the] Anointed [= Messiah]).

            [with other MSS: In a day when God will continue judging people's hidden {agendas}...]

17.  So since (or: But if; [other MSS: Consider this,]) you yourself are habitually calling (naming; classifying) yourself a Jew and are continuing to rest (lean back) upon [the] Law (= Torah), and are even from time to time boasting (expressing pride) in God,

18.  and you are progressively knowing the Will by personal experience and insight, and are constantly testing in order to prove (or: approve) the things that carry through, by habit (i.e., the essential things which matter and are different in that they are of greater value), while being a person regularly undergoing oral instruction from out of the Law (= Torah),

19.  [and] likewise (or: besides) you have confidence in yourself (or: you have persuaded yourself) to be a guide or an escort of blind folks on the way or in the path; a light within [the] darkness (obscurity of the shadow areas; dimness of the gloom),                                                                                                                                   

20.  a trainer (instructor; corrector; discipliner; educator) of senseless ones (folks without will, heart or guts; imprudent ones; foolish ones); a teacher of infants (ones not yet able to speak), while habitually having (or: holding) the outward form (rough sketch; outline; framework; semblance) of the experiential knowledge and of the truth (or: reality) within, or in union with, the Law (= Torah)...

21.  You then, the one habitually teaching another (a different one), are not habitually teaching yourself!  You, the one constantly preaching (proclaiming; heralding), "Do not steal," are habitually stealing!

22.  The person continually saying not to be committing adultery, you are habitually committing adultery!  You, the one repeatedly detesting idols (responding to forms, shapes or concepts as an abomination, as something that is foul and stinks), are in the habit of robbing temples (despoiling or profaning the sanctuary)!

            [note: vss. 21-22 can also be rendered as questions]

23.  You who are boasting in law (or: [the] Law [= Torah]; or: a law), through the transgression of (stepping across the line of; stepping to the side of; deviating from) the Law, you are constantly dishonoring (devaluing) God,

24.  for according as it has been, and stands, written [in the Tanakh (Hebrew Scriptures)],                               

"Because of you, God’s NAME [Yahweh?] is continuously being blasphemed (vilified; misrepresented; slandered; given a false image which hinders the Light) among the ethnic multitudes (nations; non-Jews; Gentiles)." [Isa. 52:5; Ezk. 36:20]

25.  Now you see, circumcision, indeed, continues being beneficial (continues to profit, to help), if you should continue practicing (or: observing) [the] Law (= Torah).  But if you should be a transgressor (side-stepper; violator) of [the] Law, your circumcision (cutting around) has become uncircumcision (literally: the foreskin).

26.  Therefore, if the Uncircumcision (= non-Jews) should be habitually on watch to guard (have in keeping and maintain) the effects of justice and equity (the results of being pointed in the right direction; the fair and equitable dealings; the acts which result from what is right) of or from the Law (= customs from neighbor-based equity), will not his uncircumcision continue to be logically considered and accounted (reckoned; calculated) into circumcision (or: credited to his account for circumcision)?

27.  And so the Uncircumcision, out of natural instinct (out of nature or native conditions; = naturally) habitually bringing the law to its goal (or: completing or fulfilling the Law), will continue judging (or: making a decision and a separation regarding) you – the one [who] through Letter and Circumcision [are] a side-stepper (a transgressor; a violator) of [the] Law,

28.  for you see, the Jew is not the one in the visibly apparent or outwardly manifest (or: For not he in the outward appearance is a Jew), neither [is] circumcision that [which is] visibly apparent (outwardly manifest) in flesh (= in body),

29.  but rather, a Jew [is] the one within the hidden [place] (or: [that which is] in the concealed [realm]) and circumcision [is] of [the] heart (= core of our being) – in union with Breath-effect (or: within [the] spirit; in attitude), not in letter – whose praise (applause; full recommendation; [note play on words: Jew is a derivative of "Judah," which means "praise"]) [is] not from out of mankind (humanity), but rather from out of God.




1.  What then [is] the advantage (the thing given by the surplus of abundance which results in pre-eminence, prerogative and superiority) of the Jew, or what [is] the furthering benefit of the circumcision?

2.  Much, in accord with every turn (i.e., from every angle, or, in every way), for first [of all] (or: in the first place; foremost; mainly), indeed, that they were (or: are) entrusted with God’s brief utterances (little words; [note: the diminutive of Logos; often translated: “oracles”]).

3.  So, what if certain ones refuse (or: if some at one point refused) to believe (or: disbelieved; are unfaithful or disloyal; were without faith; are faithless)?  Will not their unbelief (faithlessness; lack of trust; disloyalty) proceed in causing God’s faithfulness (or: trustworthiness; loyalty; trust; faith) to be idled-down (rendered useless and unproductive)?

4.  Certainly not! (May it not come to be!; "Heaven" forbid!) Now God must repeatedly come to be true (or: let God continually be birthed genuine and real), though every human [be] a liar – even as it has been written:

"So that You should be justified (seen as fair and equitable – in accord with the way pointed out) within Your words (or: sayings), and You will repeatedly overcome (conquer) within the [situation or time for] You to be periodically judged and decided about (or: You will be winning the case when You are tried)." [Ps. 51:4 & 6]

5.  However (or: But; Now) if our injustice (disregard for what is right; behavior contrary to the Way pointed out) continues to stand together with (is jointly establishing; habitually commends) God’s solidarity in fair and equitable dealings ([covenantal] justice; Way pointed out; rightwised direction), what shall we continue saying (or: declaring)?

God, the One continuously bringing the personal emotion (inherent fervor; impulse; or: wrath; anger; indignation), [is] not unjust! – after the manner of a man (down from [my] humanity) I am now laying this out

            (or: [Is] not God, the One repeatedly bringing on the personal emotion against mankind or anger in correspondence to humanity, unjust?  I proceed saying this from a human perspective;

            or: God [is] not unfair by being the one constantly bringing this inherent fervor and impulse against a person, is He?  I am presently speaking on the level of humanity)!

6.  Certainly not (May it not come to be)!  Else (or: Otherwise), how is God constantly making decisions about and repeatedly judging (or, as a future: how will God continue separating, evaluating and judging) the ordered System (controlling world of society, economy, government and religion; human aggregate)?

7.  But [other MSS: For] if in the result of my lie (or: falsehood-effect) God’s truth and reality encircles (or: surrounds) for superabundance into His glory (or: [leading] unto His enhanced reputation and a manifestation which calls forth praise), why am I also still being continually separated (judged; evaluated) as one failing to hit the target (as a sinner or an outcast)?

8.  Now [it is] not according as we are constantly being slandered (abusively spoken of so as to hinder the Light) and according as certain folks habitually affirm us to be continually saying, "We should constantly be doing (or: producing) the bad things (the ugly, worthless and evil things) so that the good things may come [of it]!"

Concerning whom the result of the judgment (or: Whose evaluation-effect, separation [of the issue] and decision) is fair (equitable; in accord with justice and deserved)!

9.  What, then (or: therefore)?  Do we continue holding an advantage (habitually have something ahead; or, as a passive: are we continually surpassed)?

Not entirely (or: Not in every respect; or: Not at all), for we already charged (previously accused) all mankind, both Jews and Greeks (or: Hellenists), to be (to continuously exist) under [the direction, power and control, or result, of] failure (the missing of the target by falling short or shooting astray through lack of skill and ability or by distraction; or: error; a mistake; sin),

10.  according as it has been, and stands, written,

            "There is not a just man (There is none fair or in right relationship; or: No one exists being

            in accord with the Way pointed out), not even one!

11.       "The one understanding does not exist (or: There is no man bringing it together to


            The one habitually seeking God does not exist (or: There is none continually looking for

            or repeatedly searching-out God).

12.       "All bend out of the regular line (turn aside; or: avoid [God]), [and] at the same time

            they are made useless;

            there is no one habitually doing useful kindness (or: kind usefulness);

            there is not as much as one. [Ps. 14:1-3; 53:1-3]

13.       "Their throat [is] an opened grave; by their tongues they were consistently baiting for

            entrapment (or: to deceive); [Ps. 5:9]

            venom of asps (vipers) [is] under their lips, [Ps.  140:3]

14.       "whose mouth constantly is crammed full of a wishful curse and of bitterness. [Ps.


15.       "Their feet [are] swift (or: sharp) to pour out blood.

16.       "The results of crushing (bruising; shattering) and misery (wretchedness) [are] in their

            paths (or: ways),

17.       "and the road of peace (path or way of shalom) they do not experience (intimately know).

            [Isa. 59:7-8; Prov. 1:16]

             18.       "There is no fear of or respect for God before (in front of) their eyes." [Ps. 36:1]


19.  But we know from having seen, that whatever the Law ([Torah]; or: custom) continues saying, it continues speaking to and for those within the Law and [its] custom,

(or: Now we are aware that as much as the Law repeatedly lays out to those centered in the Law, it keeps on speaking) to the end that every mouth may be shut (fenced in; hedged around; stopped; barred; silenced)!  And then all the world (ordered System of religion, culture, economy, and government; or: secular society; or: = all humanity) can come to be "under fair and equitable dealings," in God

            (or: would become subject to a just decision and a pointing out of the Way, by God; or: should come to be liable to God, "under what is right"; or: may be brought to a just trial with God).

20.  On account of that (or: Wherefore), no flesh (= person) [at] all will proceed to be rescued or put right (be rightwised or turned in the right direction; or: be considered justified; be freed from guilt and placed in the covenantal Way pointed out by being eschatologically liberated) before Him (in His sight; face to face with Him in His presence; corem Deo) from out of works of Law (or: deeds or accomplishments springing from Law; performance of Laws' cultus; or: observance of custom or Torah), for you see, through Law [comes] a full, clear, exact, added and experience-gained knowledge of sin (or: from failure; having the character of a missing of the target; which is deviation and error).


21.  Yet now, apart from Law (or: custom; habitual practice; ordinance made by authority; or: = Torah), a righteousness of God (God’s just action of eschatological deliverance; God’s solidarity, with moral integrity in fair and equitable dealings; a turning in the right direction that comes from God; God’s covenantal faithfulness, justice and pointing out of the Way; a rightwisedness and right relationship, which is God) has been manifested and remains displayed in clear light – being continuously attested in witness by means of (or: under) the Law (= Torah) and the Prophets –

22.  yet a righteousness of God (or: a right relationship and solidarity with and which is God; justice from God; God’s fair and equitable dealings in accord with the Way pointed out; a rightwised condition effected by God; God’s eschatological deliverance which brings covenant inclusion/participation) through Jesus Christ’s faithfulness (or: trust-faith; convinced loyalty) unto all humanity – as well as upon and unto all those presently believing (or: habitually trusting [in God]), for you see, there exists no distinction (no difference; no divided arrangement)!

23.  You see, all people at one point veered off the mark (or: all folks deviated; or: everyone fails; all humanity sins), and so they are continually posterior to, falling short of, inferior to and wanting of, God’s glory (of a manifestation of God which calls forth praise; of a reputation which comes from, and has the character of, God; of God's opinion and imagination; of [having] an appearance of God; of the glory from God),

24.  while being folks presently and progressively being made right, freed from guilt, placed in solidarity within the Way pointed out, and continuously set in right relationship (or: being [all] one-after-another rightwised; being ones habitually turned in the right direction; being [all] presently justified [by covenant inclusion]) freely (as a gift; gratuitously) by His grace (or: in His joyous favor; with His grace; to His favor) through means of the process of a release-from-an-enslaved-condition and a liberating-away-from-imprisonment, which is resident within Christ Jesus (or: by the setting-free which is centered in [the] Anointed Jesus; or: through the redemption that is union with Jesus [the] Messiah),

25.  Whom God publicly set and places before [us] (or: before put-forth; purposed) [as] a sheltering, cleansing covering (lit.: mercy seat, the lid of the ark; = act of atonement) through the faithfulness (or: the trust, faith and that loyalty) resident within His blood – into a demonstration which points out the proof of His solidarity by the rightwising deliverance (or: His fairness in covenantal, relational rightness, and His just act which accords with the Way pointed out), through (or: on account of and because of) the letting flow-aside, and the releasing-to-the-side, of the effects of errors (or: the deliverance from the results of sinful acts or offenses against the Law, and the divorcing from the effects of mistakes) having previously occurred (being ones having been before brought into being) during the midst of the holding-back and support from God –

26.  toward the demonstration which points out the proof of His rightwising deliverance, in solidarity and with fair and equitable dealing (His justice; His righteousness; His compliance with the Way pointed out) within the present season (in the current fitting situation; in union with the current fertile moment), for Him to be just (or: One in covenantal solidarity that accords with fair and equitable dealings which comprise the Way pointed out) and the One liberating, progressively turning in the right direction, making just and freeing from guilt while constantly placing in the Way pointed out which is righted, covenantal relationship (or: The Right-wiser and Justifier of) the person [issuing; being born] forth from out of the midst of Jesus’ faithfulness (or: from [the] trust, loyalty, and trustworthiness [emanating] from, and [the] faith which is, Jesus)!

27.  So then where [is] the loud-spoken boasting?  It is shut out (or: was excluded).  Through what kind of law, custom or teaching?  Of works (or: The one concerned with, composed of and pertaining to acts; The one whose source and involvement is deeds and actions)?  No! (or: By no means!)  But rather through Faith’s law and principle

(or: To the contrary, by means of a principle of trust and loyalty, manifested in faithfulness and coming from confident reliance; = a law and custom which was displayed in the confident loyalty of Christ in His act of solidarity with the human condition)!

28.  For you see, [some MSS: Now] we continue logically concluding (reckoning and reasonably accounting) a person (or: mankind; humanity) to be continually made right and freed from guilt, placed in solidarity in the Way pointed out, and kept in a right social bond of relationship (or: rightwised; justified; = eschatologically delivered and included in covenant) by faith and in trust (or: with [the] faithfulness and allegiance [of Jesus]), apart from works of law (or: [the] Law’s deeds; or: actions which are a law; or: = observance of Torah, or acts associated with custom and habitual practice, or pertaining to ordinances made by authority).

29.  Or, [is He] the God of [the] Jews only?  [Is He] not also of the ethnic multitudes (nations; Gentiles; non-Jews)?  Yes, of the ethnic multitudes (nations) also,

(or: Or to the contrary, [is He not] the God of only Jews?  [He is] not also [the God] of non-Jews, is He?

            Yes! [He is the God] of non-Jews, as well,)


30.  since indeed (or: if after all; [other MSS: seeing that] God [is] One (or: [there is] one God; [it is the] one God; = God [is; tends toward] Union; [Deut. 6:4, Shema]) Who from out of faithfulness (or: forth from [His] faith, trust and loyalty) will, by rightwising [them], progressively make Circumcision right, just and free from guilt, placing them in the Way pointed out and setting them in solidarity within right relationships – and (or: as well as) Uncircumcision through means of the [same] faithfulness (by means of this trust, faith and loyalty).

31.  Then are we habitually rendering inactive and useless (idling-down and rendering unemployed) law or custom (or: [the] Law) through the faith and trust (or: by means of [God’s] faithfulness)?  Certainly not (May that not come to be)!  But rather, we are constantly establishing law (or: a law; setting a custom in its fixed place and making a principle stand).




1.  What then shall we declare Abraham – our forefather according to the flesh (or: the first founder of our family, in line with natural descent) to have found?

(or: That being so, what will we be saying is to be discovered [concerning] Abraham, “our founding father,” in accord to flesh?

or: What, consequently, will we say?  Is Abraham found [as] our preferred father on the level or sphere of flesh?)

2.  You see, if Abraham was rightwised, placed in right relationship, and declared just and in accord with the Way, from out of [his] works (or: made right, turned in the right direction and justified by actions; = included in covenant from [his] deeds), he yet holds something to boast about (a ground or right for boasting), but not toward (or: face to face with) God.

3.  For what is the Scripture saying?

"Now Abraham believed and was faithful by God, trusted in and was loyal to God and from logical consideration it was and is entered into the leger of his story, in him, into participation in a generous act of right relationship within the path that [God] was indicating

(or: it was considered, concluded and reasonably viewed for him and an account was credited to him [to have entered] into a right relationship with behavior in accord with the Way pointed out, which was comprised of fairness and equity from being turned in the right direction [progressing] into properly-ordered living of rightwised covenant-participation) [Gen. 15:6]

4.  Now to (or: for; with) the person habitually working (practicing a trade; accomplishing a work), the wage (or: pay) is not being credited (reckoned; put on an account; considered) as corresponding to (or: in accord with) an undeserved, gratuitous gift (or: grace; a favor), but on the contrary, as commensurate with and coming down from a debt (something owed; an obligation).

5.  But to (or: for; with) the person not habitually working, yet constantly believing (actively placing [his] trust and reliance) upon the One [Who is] habitually delivering and making right the irreverent (or: the One habitually rightwising, pointing in the right direction, putting in right relationship, justifying, and placing the profane person in the midst of the [covenantal] Way pointed out), his faith (trust; convinced, confidence and loyal allegiance) is logically being considered and viewed (or: constantly reckoned and credited on account) into (unto; for) right behavior in accord with the Way pointed out (justice; fairness; right, equitable and well-ordered living).

6.  Exactly as David also is telling of the happiness and blessedness of the person in whom (to whom; for whom) God is constantly counting (reasonably concluding; logically considering) rightwised existence in accord with the Way pointed out (justice; righteousness; solidarity; fair and equitable dealing), apart from works (or: independent of [Law] activities):

             7.         "Happy and blessed [are] the people whose lawlessnesses (transgressions; violations

                         of the Law; lawless deeds) were and are sent away (dismissed; discharged; divorced;

                         pardoned) and whose failures (errors; situations of missing of the target; sins) were and

                         are covered over (concealed with a veil or lid)!

             8.         "Happy and blessed [are the] adult males of whom [other MSS: to whom; for whom] the

                         Lord (= Yahweh) may by no means logically consider a failure (take into account or

                         conclude a missed target; reasonably calculate or reckon a sin)." [Ps. 32:1-2]

9.  So then, [is] this happiness (or: blessedness) upon the Circumcision, or upon the Uncircumcision as well (or: also)?  Emphatically we are habitually reiterating,

            "The faithfulness and trust in and by Abraham were from logical consideration

            entered into the leger of his story: into a participation in a generous act of right

            relationship within the path that [God] was indicating

(or: was considered, concluded and reasonably viewed for him and an account was credited to him [to have entered] into a right relationship with behavior in accord with the Way pointed out, which was comprised of fairness and equity from being turned in the right direction [progressing] into properly-ordered living of rightwised covenant-participation)." [Gen. 15:6]

10.  How then is it or was it logically considered or calculated (or: How then was it put to the account, credited and reckoned) with [his] being (= when he was) in circumcision, or in uncircumcision?  Not in circumcision, but on the contrary, in uncircumcision!

11.  Then later he received (or: took hold of; obtained) circumcision as a mark and a sign (or: circumcision’s sign) a seal (or: a stamped impression of a seal or signet ring which shows ownership, possession, identification or authority) of and from the accordance with the Way pointed out, which is faithfulness (or: of a rightwised relationship with fair and equitable dealings from trust and which has the character and qualities of convinced fidelity; or: from faith's own righteousness), pertaining to the [situation of being] within the uncircumcision (or: = the right covenantal relationship corresponding to the faith he had while in his uncircumcised state), in order for him to be a father of all the people habitually believing and trusting by way of uncircumcision [and moving them] into [the place for] the accordance with the Way pointed out (or: the rightwised relationships characterized by fair and equitable dealings; the well-ordered life that is pointed in the right direction; = covenantal inclusion) to be logically considered in them (or: reckoned and reasonably concluded to them; calculated, accounted and credited for them) also

12.  and as well, a father of [the] Circumcision, [yet] not to (or: for) those out of circumcision only, but rather also to (for; in; by; with) those continuously advancing in line with the elements of the faithfulness (or: walking orderly by the first principles which are faith, trust and reliant allegiance) in the footprints of our father Abraham – within uncircumcision (or: in uncircumcision, in union with the footprints of the faith of our father Abraham).


13.  For not through (a; or: [the]) law [is/was] the Promise to (for; in) Abraham, or to (for; in) his seed (offspring; posterity), [for] him to be an heir of [the] aggregate of humanity (or: the one receiving and enjoying an allotted System of culture: the world of society), but on the contrary, through a [covenantal]-rightwisedness by a generous act of [God’s] eschatological intervention, which is faith and which creates faithfulness

(or: faith’s righteousness and justice; a placing in right relationship and a keeping in the Way pointed out which belongs to and comes from faith, reliance and trust; trust’s way of life which results in just and equitable dealings; fairness and equity from conviction).

14.  You see, if the ones out of law (or: = those who have [the] Law as their origin) [are] heirs (inheritors and enjoyers of the allotment), [then] the faith has been made empty (void; vain) and is now without content, and the Promise has been rendered useless (has been permanently unemployed and idle; has been annulled and is inoperative).

15.  For you see, the Law is by labor constantly effecting personal emotion from intrinsic fervor or natural propensity (or: is progressively working-down anger and wrath, repeatedly producing indignation and by habit fully accomplishing a teeming, passionate impulse or a disposition of desire).  Yet (or: Now) where no law is existing (or: where there is no custom), neither [is there] a stepping to the side (a transgression; a violation; a breach).


16.  Because of this [i.e., there being no law, the Promise comes] out of [Christ's] faithfulness, (or: from faith/trust/fidelity), to the end that [it is] down from, in line with and according to grace: a joy-producing act of favor [leading] into the [situation for] the Promise to be continuously firm (steadily walked; secured, confirmed and established; guaranteed as valid and made sure) in all (or: to all; for all) the seed (or: = realized by all the offspring), not in the person (or: to or for the [group]) [coming] out of the Law only (or: by that only from out of custom), but rather also in the [seed] (or: to the [group]; for the person; or: by that) from out of [the] faithfulness and trust of Abraham – who is a father of all of us,

17.  according as it has been and stands written,

            "A father of many multitudes (nations; ethnic groups) I have placed (put; set; deposited)

            you" [Gen. 17:5]                                                                                                                       

[Now while he was being] down in the midst of and facing [the One] Whom he believed, which was God

            (or: down in a place that was in opposition, from which he trusted in [the message] which

            was God, and he relied upon [the idea] which [came] from God; or: in line with and in union

            with, yet being on the opposite side of the matter, he gained confidence from God)

– the One continuously (habitually; or: repeatedly; periodically) making the dead ones alive, and (or: even) continuously calling (or: repeatedly and habitually summoning) the things not existing as existing (or: = not being into continuously being) –

18.  who, to the side of expectation (or: more than or beyond expectation; beside hope; near the side of expectation), trusted (believed; relied; was faithful; put faith) upon expectation (or: expectant hope) into the [situation for] him to become (to bring himself into being) a father of many multitudes (nations; ethnic groups), in accord with (down from and in line with) that having been and still being spoken (or: declared), "Thus shall progressively be your seed (or: offspring; descendants)." [Gen. 15:5]

19.  And so, not being weak (without strength; infirm) in this faith, trust and loyalty, he attentively considered (studied, thought and perceived down upon) his own body by this time (or: already) having been made dead (or: deadened), subsisting in the circumstances of (or: beginning to be under the possession of) about one hundred years, as well as (or: also; and; even) the state of deadness (or: deadening) of Sarah’s womb.

20.  Yet he was not divided in his judgment by unbelief with a view to God’s Promise (or: but by and in lack of trust he was not separated or undecided in view of, and with regard to, God’s Promise; or: yet unto God’s Promise he did not waiver or doubt in disloyalty), but on the contrary, he was empowered and enabled by faith (or: in trust; for conviction; with loyalty), giving glory (or: an opinion; an estimation; credit) to God and a reputation for God,

21.  and being carried to full conviction and assurance that what He had promised He continuously exists being capable and powerful to do (to make; to perform).

22.  Wherefore (or: Through which; For this reason), also, from logical consideration it was and is entered into the leger of his story, in him, into participation in a generous act of right relationship within the path that [God] was indicating

(or: was viewed in him as having been brought into an eschatological deliverance; is reasonably credited into righteous existence; or: was accounted to him [to have entered] into right thinking and conduct; or: is concluded for him as being turned in the right direction; or: = was reckoned into rightwised covenant-participation).

23.  Now it was not written because of him only, that, "it was and is logically considered for him (reckoned, concluded and accounted to him; it was put to his account)," [Gen. 15:6]

24.  but rather (or: on the contrary) because of us also, for whom, in whom, with whom and to whom it is constantly about to be logically considered (or: it continues being about to be put on account) for, in and to the folks continually believing, constantly trusting, habitually expressing covenant allegiance and progressively relying upon the One rousing and raising Jesus, our Lord, forth from out of the midst of dead folks –

25.  [He] who was handed (delivered) over through and because of the effects of our falls to the side (or: with a view to and for the sake of the results of our stumblings aside, transgressions and offenses), and yet was roused and raised up through and because of our eschatological deliverance, being placed in the Way pointed out and turned in the right direction

(or: for the benefit of our being made to be just; or: on behalf of our justifying, leading to freedom from guilt; or: for the purpose of our being brought into equity and right relationship: a rightwising of solidarity in covenant inclusion and participation).




1.  Being, then, folks that were eschatologically delivered and rightwised (placed in the right relationship of [covenantal] solidarity in the Way pointed out and made fair, equitable, just, free from guilt and turned in the right direction) from the midst of [His] faithfulness, out of trust and from conviction, we continuously hold and progressively have [other MSS: let us (or: we can and should) habitually retain and enjoy] peace and harmony face to face with God (or: [directing and conducting us] toward God), through our Owner and Lord, Jesus Christ (or: Master, [the] Anointed Jesus),

2.  through Whom, also, we have had and now hold the conducted approach and access (or: the act of bringing toward to gain entrée), by [His] faithfulness (or: in this trust; with that confidence; for loyalty), into this grace and joyous favor within which we have stood and in union with which we now stand, and so we keep on celebrating, speaking loudly and boasting upon the expectation (or: expectant hope) of God’s glory (the manifestation from God which calls forth praise; from the splendor, which is God; and: from God's good reputation; of the opinion from God; from the imagination which has the quality of God).

3.  So not only this, but further, we also keep on celebrating, speaking loudly and boasting within the pressures, while exulting in ordeals, afflictions and tribulations, having seen and thus knowing that the pressure (or: the ordeal, affliction or tribulation) is habitually producing (working down; accomplishing) a relentless remaining (or: abiding and dwelling) under [situations and circumstances] (or: humble and persistent endurance and fortitude as we get through it, as well as the patient ability to give support).

4.  Yet the remaining and abiding under [produces] a quality of being approved by testing (= maturity of character); in turn, the quality of being approved by testing [produces] expectation and hope.

5.  Now the expectation (or: expectant hope) does not habitually bring down shame (disgrace; dishonor; thus: disappointment), because God’s love (the urge toward reunion and the unambiguous, uniting acceptance from God) has been poured out in a gush and shed forth so that it now floods within our hearts, permeating the core of our being, through the Set-apart Breath-effect (or: Holy Spirit; Sacred Attitude) being given to us (in us; for us).

6.  For during our yet existing [as] weak folks and continuing in being without strength (or: [B reads: Since in fact] when we were infirm, and thus helpless), Christ, still corresponding to and in accord with [the] appointed season (or: down from a kairos; in the sphere of and down into the level of a fitting situation; in line with a fertile moment), died for the sake of the ungodly and irreverent (or: died over [the situation of] and on behalf of those without awe of God).

7.  Now you see, with difficult toil and pain (or: For hardly, scarcely or rarely) for the sake of (over [the situation of]; on behalf of) a just person (a righteous one; one in accord with the Way pointed out; someone in right relationship; a rightwised one) will someone (anyone; a certain one) proceed to be dying.  For over (for the sake of) the good (noble; virtuous) person or cause, perhaps (or: possibly) someone (or: a certain one) may continue being brave enough (daring; courageous) to die.

8.  Yet God constantly stands together with His own love [flowing] into us (or: But God continuously puts the urge for accepting-reunion, from, and which is, Himself, together into the midst of us), because during our still continuing to exist being (= while we were yet) failures (folks deviating from the goal; ones missing the target and making mistakes; sinners; outcasts), Christ died over our [condition and predicament] (or: on our behalf; for the sake of us).

9.  Much more, then – being NOW (at the present time) eschatologically delivered and rightwised (turned in the right direction; placed in right relationships of solidarity; righted and made fair within the Way pointed out; or: justified and made free from guilt; or: = placed in covenant) within His blood (or: in union with the blood from, and which is, Him) through Him we will continue being rescued (saved; delivered; made healthy and whole; returned to our original state and condition; kept safe), away from the [conditions or situations of] personal emotion (inherent fervor; natural mental bent or disposition; teeming passion and swelling desire; or: [our] anger and [human] wrath).

10.  For you see, since (or: if) while continuously existing being actively hostile ones (or: enemies [of people, or of God]) we were suddenly changed from enmity to friendship by God (or: conciliated to God; or: changed to be wholly other and to be in line, consistent and compatible IN God) through His Son’s death, much more (or: all the more, then) we will continue being kept safe and will be progressively delivered (rescued; saved; cured and restored to the health and wholeness of our original state and condition) being folks that were conciliated (fully changed from enmity to friendship and made totally other than we were) within His Life (or: in union with the life which is Him).

11.  And not only that, but further, we also are now folks constantly celebrating, speaking loudly and boasting within, and in union with, God, through our Owner (or: Lord; Master), Jesus Christ – through Whom we NOW receive (or: actively seize; grasp; take-down and hold by hand) the [aforementioned] act of being changed from enmity to friendship

(or: the full exchange of being changed to be in line, consistent and compatible, where we are totally other than we were; the reconciliation; the commensurate exchange; the change, [induced by the action of God,] which came down [upon us]).


12.  Because of and through this (or: Therefore; That is why), just as through one man (or: So it is that, even as through the act or agency of one person,) The Sin (or: the failure, miss of the target and deviation from the goal) entered into the aggregate of humanity (ordered system of religion, culture, society and government; or: world; cosmos), and through The Sin (failure; the mistake; the miss of the target; the deviation) The Death [also], in this way The Death thus also passed through in all directions (or: came through the midst causing division and duality; went throughout) into all mankind (or: into the midst of humanity; or: to all people), upon which [situation, condition, and with the consequential result that] all people sin (or: everyone failed, missed the target, fell short of the goal; or: all make mistakes and deviate from the path)

13.  – for until (or: you see, up to the point of; for prior to) Law (or: custom), sin (failure; missing of the target; deviation from the goal) continued existing within the ordered System (world of religion, government, economy and culture; or: organized societies; or: cosmos), yet sin (failure; missing; deviating) is not continuing to be logically considered (is not being taken into account; is not habitually being put on one’s account or ledger; is not continually counted), there being (or: existing) no law (or: custom).

14.  But nonetheless The Death reigned (or: holds royal and kingly rule) from Adam as far as and as long as Moses [= Law], even upon those not sinning (failing to hit the target; deviating from the goal) upon [B and other MSS: within] the result of that which is conformed to (upon the occasion of the effect of the similarity of, or in the likeness of) the stepping aside (or: the transgression) of Adam – who is, and continues being, a replication (an impress; a pattern; a type; a prefigure) of and from the One being repeatedly (or: always; or: progressively) about to … [be (?) come (?) do something (?)] (or: the One habitually impending)

            (or: which exists being an impression made by a blow from the [situation; Person; creation; realm; arrangement] progressively being about to [exist]).

15.  Yet to the contrary, [it is] not in the same way [with] the effect of grace (result of favor; the thing graciously given) as [it was with] the effect of the fall to the side (or: = the result of the stumbling aside and the offence is not simply balanced out by the result of the joyful gift of grace – the gratuitous favor).  For you see, since (or: if) by (or: in) the effect of the fall to the side (the result of the stumbling aside and the offense) of the one THE MANY (= the mass of humanity) died, MUCH MORE (= infinitely greater) [is] the Grace of God (God’s Grace; favor which is God), and the gift (or: gratuitous benefit) within Grace – a joy-producing act of Favor – by that of the One Man, Jesus Christ, surrounded (or: encircles) into encompassing superabundance (extraordinary surplus and excess) into THE MANY (= the mass of humanity).

16.  And further, [it is] NOT [with] the effect of the gush and flow of the gratuitous gift as [it was] through one missing of the target (failing; deviating; sinning).  For you see, on the one hand, the effect of the decision and judgment (result of the separating, evaluation and verdict) [was] from out of one [failure and deviation, which led] into a commensurate effect of a decision (a corresponding result of a negative evaluation which fell in line with the decision and followed the pattern which divided [us] down).  But on the other hand, the effect of the grace (the product of the gratuitous favor and the resulting joyous benefit) [is] from out of the effect of many falls to the side (result of many stumblings-aside and offenses) into the effect of a rightwising deliverance into covenant inclusion in the Way and making things right

(the result of a liberating placing into right relationships within the Way pointed out; or: the effect of an act of justice; an effect of equity; a just award; or: a result of fairness, removal of guilt, and justification, while being turned in the right direction; an amendment of what was wrong; a just-effect; = the effect of covenant inclusion and participation).

17.  For since (or: if) by the effect of the fall to the side (or: in the result of the stumbling aside; with the effect of the offense) of the one The Death reigned (or: reigns; rules as king) through that one, much more, rather, will the peoples (= the masses of humanity) – in continuously receiving and seizing upon (taking in hand) the surrounding superabundance (encircling, extraordinary surplus and excess) of the Grace and of, from and which is the gratuitous gift of the liberated Rightwisedness (of the solidarity in fair and equitable treatment; from the placement in right [covenant]-relationship in the Way; of the justification and freedom from guilt while being turned in the right direction and made right) – continue reigning (or: ruling as kings) within and in union with Life through the One, Jesus Christ.


18.  Consequently, then, as [it was] through the effect of one fall to the side (or: the result of one offense) [coming] into all mankind ([permeating] into all humanity; = [extending] into the whole race) [bringing them] into a commensurate effect of a decision (a corresponding result of a negative evaluation which fell in line with the decision and followed the pattern which divided [us] down), THUS ALSO and in the same way, through one just-effect and the result of one right act which set [all humanity] right and in accord with the Way pointed out (through the result of one act of justice, equity and solidarity; through a single decree creating rightwised relationships; through one effect of rightwising which turns [people] in the right direction) [it comes] into ALL MANKIND (all humanity; all people; = the whole race) [bringing them] into a setting right of Life and a liberating rightwising from Life [including them in covenant community]

(or: Life’s turning [folks] in the right direction resulting in right relating, equity and justice which is in accord with the Way pointed out; a making of situations and conditions to be right, which pertain to Life; an expressing of fairness and equity, which is LIFE; a rightly directed solidarity coming from Life; a just-acting deliverance having the qualities of life).

19.  For you see, JUST AS through the unwillingness to listen, or to pay attention, resulting in disobedience (or: the erroneous hearing leading to disobedience) of the one person THE MANY (= the mass of humanity) were rendered (established; constituted; placed down and made to be) sinners (failures; ones who diverge and miss the target), THUS – in the same way – ALSO through the submissive listening and paying attention resulting in obedience of the One, THE MANY (= the mass of humanity) will continue being rendered “set-right folks”

(placed down and established [to be] just ones; constituted folks who have been rightwised to be people in the Way pointed out; made righteous ones who are guilt-free, fair, equitable, and rightly-turned in the solidarity of covenant relationships).


20.  Now Law and custom at one point entered in alongside (or: intruded into the situation by the side) to the end that the effect of the fall to the side (or: so that the result of the offense and the stumbling aside) would increase to be more than enough (should greatly abound and become more intense).  But where the Sin (the failure; the divergence and missing of the target) increases (or: abounded to be more than enough; becomes more intense) THE GRACE ("the act producing happiness, which is granted as a favor" – Jim Coram) at once super-exceeds (or: hyper-exceeded) over and above, surrounding to excessive abundance and overflow,

21. to the end that JUST AS the Sin (the failure; the erroneous act; the deviation and digression which issued in missing the goal) at one point reigned (or: ruled as king; exercised sovereign sway) within, and in union with, the Death, THUS SO (or: in THIS way) also the Grace and joyous favor would reign (should rule as king; can exercise sovereign sway) through an eschatological deliverance that created rightwisedness (or: by means of being rightly-turned  into an existence with equity in [covenantal] solidarity of right relationships which accord to the Way; through a liberating Justice-[expression]) [which leads] into Life which belongs to, pertains to and has the characteristics of the Age (or: eonian life; Life of the Age [of Messiah]; a life for the ages) through Jesus Christ, our Owner (Lord; Master).




1.  What, then (or: consequently), shall we continue saying (or: declaring)?  Should we continue prolonging our remaining (or: May we stay longer, remain on, habitually abide or persist) in the Sin (with the failure; by the missing of the target; centered in the error; in relation to the deviation from the goal), to the end that the Grace and Favor may increase to be more than enough?

2.  Certainly not (May it not come to be; May it not happen)!  We, the very ones who once died by the Sin (or: died with the Sin; die in deviation; died with reference to missing the target; died to failure; die in error), how shall we [other MSS: could we] still (or: yet) continue living within it, centered in it, or in union with it?


3.  Or are you continuing to be ignorant (are you remaining without experiential knowledge; do you continue not knowing) that as many of we who are immersed (or: were at one point soaked or baptized) into Christ Jesus are immersed (or: were then baptized) into His death?

4.  We, then (or: consequently), were buried together (entombed together with funeral rites) in Him (or: by Him; with Him), through the immersion (baptism) into the death, to the end that just as (or: in the same manner as) Christ was roused and raised forth from out of the midst of dead folks THROUGH (through means of) THE GLORY (the glorious manifestation of splendor which calls forth praise; the notion; the renown; the reputation; the imagination) of The Father (or: which is the Father), thus also we can walk around (or: we also should likewise conduct ourselves and order our behavior) within newness of life (in union with life characterized by being new in kind and quality, and different from that which was former).


5.  For since (or: You see, if) we have been birthed (have become; have come to be) folks engrafted and produced together (or: planted and made to grow together; brought forth together; congenital) in, by, to and with the result of the likeness of (or: the effect of the similar manner from) His death, then certainly we shall also continue existing [in and with the effects of the likeness] of The Resurrection

            (or: which is the resurrection; or: from, and with qualities of, the resurrection),

6.  while constantly knowing this by intimate experience, that our old, former humanity is crucified together (or: was simultaneously and jointly impaled and put to death on an execution stake) with [Him], to the end that the body of the Sin (the body belonging to the failure; the corporal manifestation that pertains to the deviation; the group of people [Adam] who missed the target) could and would be rendered useless and inoperative (idled-down to be unproductive; made null, inactive and unemployed), for us to no longer continually be a slave to the Sin (or: perform as a slave in the failure, for the Sin, or by deviating and thus missing the goal),

7.  for you see, the One at one point dying (or: the person at some point experiencing death) has been eschatologically released and rightwised away from the Sin

(or: set in the Way pointed out, away from the Failure; turned in the right direction, away from the deviation and missing of the target; placed into equity and right relationships, away from error; = has been delivered and moved away from The Sin, and has been brought into participation in covenant relationship). [cf vs. 18, below]

8.  Now since we died (or: if we die) together with Christ, we are continuously believing (relying; trusting) that we shall also continue living together in Him (by Him; for Him; to Him; with Him),

9.  having seen and thus knowing and perceiving that Christ, being aroused and raised forth from out of the midst of dead folks, is no longer dying.  His death is no longer exercising ownership (or: Death is no longer being lord or exerting mastery pertaining to Him; or: Death, from Him, is no longer functioning as a lord),

10.  for what He died (or: You see, [the death] which He died) He died for the Sin (or: by the Failure; in the deviation; to the Sin; with the Error) once for all [time] (or: at once and only once); yet what He lives (or: Yet [the life] which He continues to live), He continues living in God (for God; to God; by God; with God).

11.  Thus you folks, also, be logically considering (reckoning, accounting and concluding) yourselves to exist being dead ones, indeed, by the failure to hit the target (or: in the Sin; or: to the deviation), yet ones continuously living by God (in God; for God; to God; with God), within Christ Jesus, our Owner (or: in union with [the] Anointed Jesus, our Lord and Master).


12.  Do not, then, let the Sin to continue reigning (or: Therefore, stop allowing the failure, the mistake, or the deviation from the goal to continue on the throne ruling as king) within your mortal body, [leading] into the continual listening in submissive obedience to its earnest desires (or: its full rushing of emotions, passions and lusts).

13.  Also stop constantly placing your members (or: body parts) alongside (providing and presenting them) [as] tools (or: instruments) of injustice (disregard for what is right; activities discordant to the Way pointed out); but rather, you folks at once place yourselves alongside for disposal to God (or: stand yourselves with God, at [His] side; by and in God, present yourselves; set yourselves alongside [each other], for God) as it were being folks continually alive forth from out of the midst of dead ones, and your members [as] tools (instruments) of fair and equitable dealing in the Way pointed out in and by God (of justice and solidarity, for God; of being turned in the right direction, to God; of rightwised covenant relationships with God),

14.  for your sin (your failure; your missing of the target) will not continue exercising mastery (or: You see, deviation from the goal shall not exert ownership and rule as your lord), for you folks are not under Law (or: do not exist being subject to [Torah] or custom), but rather under Grace (or: the Act which produced happiness, which was granted as a favor).


15.  What, then?  Should we (May we; Can we) occasionally sin (miss the target; fail), because we are not under law (subject to [Torah] or custom), but rather under grace (the act yielding happiness, granting joyous favor)?  Certainly not (May it not come to be or happen)!

16.  Have you not seen and thus know (Are you not aware) that to whom (for whom; or: in what) you habitually place yourselves alongside, presenting and providing yourselves as slaves into submissive, obedient hearing, you folks are, and continue being, [his or its] slaves to whom (in what; for which) you habitually submit in obedient hearing – whether of failure (of sin; of missing the target) into death, or of submissive, hearing obedience into fair and equitable dealings of rightwised relationship in the Way pointed out ([covenant] justice).

17.  But Grace by God (or: Now [this is] happiness granted as favor in God): that you folks were existing, continuing to be slaves of the Sin (slaves of failure; slaves belonging to the missing the target), yet now you submissively hear and pay attention, so as to obey – from out of heart! – [the] type of instruction (or: chiseled and imprinted pattern of teaching) into which you are (or: at one point were) given over (handed over and entrusted; given alongside).

18.  Now, being set free (or: liberated) from the Sin (failure; error), you folks are (or: were suddenly) enslaved (made slaves) to justice (= to covenant participation in solidarity)

            (or: in the Way pointed out; for fair and equitable dealings; by the Well-ordered, Righteous Existence [in Christ]; to rightwised relationship and [covenantal] behavior).


19.  I am speaking humanly because of the weakness or sickness of your flesh (or: = your human condition; or: = the self that had been distorted by the System): for even as you folks presented (placed and provided alongside) your members [as; being] slaves by (for; in; to) the Uncleanness and by (for) the Lawlessness, [leading] into that Lawlessness (or: in one illegal act to [another] illegal act), in this manner (thus) now you folks must place (provide; present) your members alongside [as] slaves of the Way pointed out (slaves of rightwised relationship in fair and equitable dealings; slaves of justice and righteousness) [leading] into the quality and sphere of being set-apart (or: into a holy consecration and a state of being sacredly different).

20.  For when you folks were existing being slaves of the Sin (slaves from failure; slaves of deviation from the goal), you were existing [as it were] being free [as; with regard] to the Way pointed out (= being not owned by rightwised relationships, fairness, equity and justice).

21.  What fruit, then, were you having (did you used to hold or possess) at that time, upon which [situation or condition] you folks now continue to be ashamed and embarrassed?  For, indeed, the outcome (the end; the goal; the fruition; the consummation; the destiny) of those things [is] death.


22.  But now being folks set free from the Sin (from failure; from error; from missing the target; from deviation) yet being enslaved by (to; in; for) God, you folks continue having (habitually hold and possess) your fruit unto the quality and sphere of being set-apart (into a sacred difference).  Now the outcome (goal, end and destiny) [of this is] life which belongs to, is proper to, pertains to and is connected to the Age (eonian life; Life of and for the ages).

23.  For you see, the subsistence pay (the ration money; the allowance) of the Sin (failure; the missing of the target; the deviation) [is] death, but God’s grace-effect (or: the result of the joyous and gracious gift of and from God; the effect of the favor, which is God,) [is] life which belongs to, is proper to, pertains to and is connected to the Age (eonian life; Life of and for the ages) within Christ Jesus, our Owner (or: in union with [the] Anointed Jesus, our Lord).




1.  Or are you continuing to be ignorant (are you remaining without experiential knowledge and insight), brothers (= fellow covenant members) – for I am speaking to those having intimate experiential knowledge of Law (= those who understand Torah) – that the Law (or: culture; Torah) continuously performs as lord (owner; master) of the man for as long as he is living?

2.  For instance, the married woman (the woman under subjection to a husband or to an adult male) has been bound and remains tied up by Law and custom to the living husband (or: has been wrapped up and stands tied to law [= Torah; or: custom] by the living man).  Yet if the husband may die, she has been released from employment and stands idle (or: has been brought down to living without labor and rendered inactive; she is discharged and brought down to unproductivity, being idled down) away from the husband’s law (or: from pertaining to the law [= Torah] and custom of the adult man).

3.  Consequently (or: Accordingly), then, [with the] continued living of the husband, she will be dealing as an adulteress (or: bear the title “adulteress”) if she should become [attached] to, or [a lover] for, or [involved] with a different man (or: husband); but if the husband may die, she is free (she exists in a state of freedom) from the Law [= Torah], not to be an adulteress, pertaining to her becoming [a wife] for (or: to) a different man (or: husband).

4.  So that, my brothers (= fellow covenant-believers), you folks also were made dead to the Law (or: were put to death by the Law [=Torah] and with the Law), through the body of the Christ, [proceeding] into the situation to become [the wife] for (or: to; in; with) a different One – in (to; for) the One being roused and raised forth from out of the midst of dead folks – to the end that we may bear fruit by God (or: produce a harvest in, for, to and with God).


5.  You see, when we [= Adam/Israel] were existing within the flesh (or: = in the old alienated Adamic existence, with the flesh sacrifices and markers of the Law), the effects, impressions, emotions and impulses from the experiences, passions and suffering of the failures (from the sins and deviations which caused misses of the target) the things through means of the Law [the Torah] – were continually operating (working within; energizing and effecting) within our members into the condition to produce fruit by Death (in death; to death; for Death).

6.  But now (at the present time), we [= Israel] are (or: were instantly) rendered inactive (brought down to living without labor, released from employment, made unproductive; discharged) away from the Law (= the Torah; [some MSS add: of Death]), dying within that in which we were constantly being held down (held in possession and detained), so that it is [for] us to be habitually performing as slaves within newness of spirit (a newness pertaining to spirit and has its source in the Breath-effect; freshness and new quality of attitude) and not in oldness (obsoleteness; outdatedness) of Letter (or: not in outwornness of what is written).

7.  What, then, shall we say (or: declare)?  [Is] the Law (or: custom) sin (error; failure to hit the target; deviation from the goal)?  Certainly not (May it not come to be)!  Instead (or: But rather) I did not (or: do not) at any point experientially and intimately know the Sin, if not through Law ([= Torah]; or: custom).  For besides, I had not seen and thus had not known (become conscious of) the full passion (earnest desire; lust; coveting; emotion upon something) if the Law and the custom were not continuously saying (or: except the [Torah] kept on saying), "You will continue not putting strong emotions upon something (or: You shall not repeatedly have a strong impulse or desire; You will not constantly crave or covet [other folks' possessions or their gods])." [Ex. 20:17; Deut. 5:21; comment: the "I" of this passage = Adam (Gen. 3)/Israel (Ex. 32)/Paul (in his pre-Christian experience)]

8.  Yet the Sin (or: the failure; the error; the mistake; the missing of the target; the deviation from the goal), taking (receiving in the hand and thus, getting) a starting point (a base of operation; an occasion; a means of beginning) through the implanted goal (impartation of the finished product within; inward directive; commandment [to Adam, then to Israel]), works (or: worked) down to effect and produce within me every full passion, strong impulse, over-desire and craving emotion upon things – for apart from Law (or: a custom; or: [Torah]) sin (error; failure; missing the target) [is] dead (or: [was] lifeless).

9.  Now I was at one time (or: formerly) habitually living apart from Law (or: I was once alive, independent from custom and [Torah]); yet, in connection with the coming of the implanted goal (of the impartation of the finished product within; of the inward commandment and directive), the Sin becomes alive again (or: deviation, failure, error and the missing of the target revived and comes back to life), but I die (or: and I died; yet I die).

10.  Also, the implanted goal (impartation of the finished product within; inward directive; commandment) – the one [meant to lead] into Life – this was found by me (for me; in me; to me) [to be leading] into death.

11.  For the Sin (failure; error; the miss when shooting at a target; the deviation from the goal), taking a starting point (receiving an occasion and base of operation) through the implanted goal (impartation of the finished product within; inward directive; commandment [to Adam, then to Israel]), completely makes me unable to walk the Path (made me incapable to walk out [customs of the Law]; thoroughly cheats and deludes me, making me lose my Way; deceives me; [comment: reference to Eve in Gen. 3:13]) and through it kills me off (or: slaughtered me).


12.  And thus (or: Consequently) the Law [= the Torah], indeed, [is] set-apart (holy; sacred; consecrated) and the implanted goal (impartation of the finished product within; inward directive; commandment) [is] set-apart (holy; sacred) and in accord with the Way pointed out (fair; equitable; just; = related to covenant) and good (virtuous).

13.  Then did the good come to be death for me (in me; to me)?  Certainly not (may it not come to be)!  But rather, the Sin (failure; error; the miss; the mistake; the deviation) to the end that sin (failure; error; etc.) may be brought to light and made visible (or: in order that it may be made to appear and be shown as being sin) is constantly producing (or: working down) death through the good [i.e., the commandment], to the end that the Sin (failure; the miss; error; the deviation), through the implanted goal (impartation of the finished product within; inward directive; commandment), may come to be in accord with a throwing-beyond that is missing the target

            (or: may happen according to excess which is failing; may become extremely erroneous;

            should come to be in line with a deviating shooting over the goal; or, substantively: may

            become an exceeding failure, an excessive sinner or a total outcast).

14.  For you see, we have seen and are aware (or: on the one hand I recognize and know) that the Law (= Torah; or: law; custom; principle) constantly exists being spiritual (is pertaining to spirit; is having the qualities of a Breath-effect; is relating to attitude), yet (or: on the other hand) I [= Israel? or, Adam] myself am (or: exist being) fleshly (composed of flesh; carnal; flesh-oriented; or: = affected by the alienated self), being one having been and now remaining sold under [the power and control of] the Sin (under failure and the miss of the Target [of Torah?]).

15.  For what I am constantly producing (habitually working down to accomplish; [= keeping customs of the Torah]) I do not intimately know (experience in my understanding).  You see, that which I continually will (habitually intend and purpose), this I do not habitually practice.  But rather, that which I constantly hate, this I continue to do or repeatedly perform!

16.  Now if what I am not continually willing (not habitually intending), this I am habitually doing or producing, I am constantly concurring with (conceding; agreeing with; a prophetic voice with) the Law [= the Torah], that [it is] ideal (fine; excellent; beautiful).

17.  Yet now (= as the case really stands) I myself am no longer habitually producing (continuously working down and effecting) this, but rather the Sin (the failure; the personified error of missing the Target; the deviation [from Torah and its boundary markers]) [which is] continuously housing herself (or: making its home; inhabiting; dwelling; = living) within me.

18.  For I have seen and thus know that good (or: virtue) is not habitually making its home (housing itself; dwelling; = living) within me – that is, within my flesh (= alienated self; or: = life under Torah) – for the [ability or condition] to will (or: intend; purpose) is continually lying near beside me, but the [ability, condition or circumstance] to constantly produce (work down, effect and accomplish) the ideal (the fine; the excellent; the beautiful) [is] not.

19.  For that which I constantly intend (will; purpose) a good thing (a noble deed; a virtuous act) I do not normally do (or: I am not consistently doing what I continually will, intend and purpose: [something] good), but rather, that which I continuously do not intend (or: will) a worthless (ugly; ignoble; base; bad; evil) thing – this I habitually put into practice!

20.  Yet if that which I am not willing (intending), this I am constantly doing, I, myself, am no longer producing (working down and effecting) it, but rather, [it is] the Sin (the failure; the error; the missing of the Goal; the deviation [from Torah-keeping]) continuously housing herself (making its home; dwelling) within me [= Adam, or an Israelite, personified].

21.  Consequently I keep on finding the principle (or: this law) in me – in the person normally willing (purposing; intending) to habitually do (perform; produce) the ideal (the beautiful; the fine) that in me (or: with me; for me) the worthless (the ugly; the ignoble; the base; the evil) is constantly lying close by.

22.  For habitually I am pleased with (take enjoyment and delight with) the principle and law which is God (or: the principle of God; or: the Law from God), down in (or: in correspondence with; on the level of) the inner human (or: the interior person within; the inside humanity),

23.  yet I constantly see (or: observe) a different principle (or: law), within my members, [which is] by the Law (or: custom; or: [= Torah]) repeatedly taking the field to wage war against my mind (or: warring in opposition to, and in the place of, the law of, and which is, my mind), and repeatedly taking me prisoner and leading me into captivity within the principle (or: in union with the Law) of the Sin (the failure; the error; the miss of the Target; the deviation from [Torah-keeping]) the one continuously existing (or: now being) within my members.

24.  I [am] a wretched (callous-weighted [from hard work], miserable, distressed, enduring-severe-effort-and-hardship) man (or: human)!  What will be progressively rescuing me from out of the body of this death (or: from out of this body of the death; out of this body which pertains to death and which has its origin, character and qualities in death)? [comment: Paul continues his rhetoric of impersonating Adam's and Israel's predicament]

25.  Grace!  The Grace of, and the joyous favor from, God! – through Jesus Christ our Owner (Lord; Master)!

[other MSS: The grace of {the} Lord; other MSS: Yet {there is} grace and favor in God (or: by God; with God), through Jesus Christ our Lord (or: Master); other MSS: I habitually give thanks to, and speak of the goodness of grace in, God!] 

Consequently then, I myself in (or: by; with) the mind, indeed (or: on the one hand), continuously perform as a slave to and for the principle and law which is God (or: in God’s Law; by and with God’s principle), yet in (or: on the other hand by and to) the flesh (= with the self which is oriented to society and the System; or: = customs and cultus of the Torah), to, for and in a principle of failure (with a law of sin or error; or: for a law from missing the Target; or: by Sin’s law).




1.  Nothing, consequently, [is] now a result of condemnation in (or: a commensurate effect of a decision for; a corresponding result of a negative evaluation which falls in line with a decision or follows the pattern which divides [folks] down, with) those within Christ Jesus

(or: In that case, therefore, [there is] now not one thing [that is] really an effect of a downward-judging to, in or with the folks in union with or centered in [the] Anointing of Jesus)! [A, D & later MSS here add: {They} are not habitually walking around (= living their lives) in accord with (or: corresponding to) flesh] [Aleph2, D2 & later MSS here add: but to the contrary, in the sphere of spirit and attitude (or: Breath-effect; or: {the} Spirit).]

2.  For the principle and law of, from and which is the spirit and attitude of 'The Life within Christ Jesus'    

     (or: For you see, the Law of Life’s spirit, joined with [the] Anointing of Jesus; or: For the Spirit’s law of life within Christ Jesus; or: the Law [= Torah] from the Breath-effect, which    is Life in union with [the] Anointed Jesus)

frees you away from the Law of the Sin (or: the principle of failure and the missing of the target; the code of behavior that produces error; the principle of deviation from the goal) and the Death (or: immediately set you [other MSS: me] at liberty from the law that deals with and has the character of sin and death). [comment: = the principle of the old Adamic life, and Israel's Torah]

3.  You see, [because of] the powerlessness and inability of the Law (from the written code; = associated with Torah) within which it kept on making [folks] weak and feeble ([note: the active voice]; but as an intransitive: in which [incapability] it was constantly falling sick and continued being without strength) through the flesh (= the alienated self oriented toward the System; or: = Torah culture and cultus, with boundary-marker observances) – in sending His own Son (or: by sending the Son, Who is Himself) within a result of a likeness of flesh that is connected with sin (or: in an effect of being made similar to sin’s flesh; = in union with a result from being made like the alienated existence that came from failure), and concerning sin

            (or: encircling failure and error; to address a missed target; surrounding deviation; [note: or, as a technical term for the sin offering: = to be the sin-offering; see: Lev. 4:32; 5:6-9; 2 Chron. 29:24; Ps. 40:6; Ezk. 42:13, LXX]), God gives a commensurate decision from a corresponding negative evaluation which falls in line with and follows the pattern which divides down (or: condemned; gives a down-oriented verdict; passed down a sentence on and gave judgment against) the Sin within the flesh [system]

            (or: the failure, the error, the miss of the target and the deviation [which is] in union with the human condition; or: = the mistake of the estranged, System-dominated self),

4.  to the end that the effect of the just Deed of deliverance in which wrong was set right, resulting from being liberated and turned in the right direction within the Way pointed out, which is the principle, (or: so that the effect of the fair relationships which come from [His] law and custom; or: in order that the result of the equity and rightness of the Law) can (would; could; may) be fulfilled and become full within us – in those habitually walking about (or: = for the folks ordering their behavior/living their lives) not in accord with flesh (or: = not corresponding to the human condition; or: = on the level of Torah-keeping boundary-markers), but rather in accord with spirit (or: down from [the] Spirit; corresponding to [His] Attitude; on the level of and in the sphere of Breath-effect).


5.  You see, those continuously existing in accord with flesh (or: = in correspondence to Torah-keeping and cultural boundaries; or: = the human condition) habitually think about, have an understanding and outlook based upon, are inclined to, set their mind on and are disposed to the things of the flesh (= the human condition with its cultural traditions, religious cultus and national boundary markers), yet those in accord with spirit (or: down from [the] Spirit; on the level of Breath-effect; in line with [His] Attitude) [think about; have an outlook from] the things and matters of the spirit (or: the Spirit; Breath-effect; the Attitude).

6.  For the result of the thinking (mind-set; effect of the way of thinking; disposition; result of understanding and inclination; the minding; the opinion; the thought; the outlook) of the flesh (= the human condition or the System of culture and cultus; or: = outward Torah ceremony) [is; brings] death, yet the result of the thinking (mind-set; disposition; thought and way of thinking; outlook) of the spirit (or: the Spirit; the Breath-effect; the Attitude) [is; brings] Life and Peace.

7.  Because of that, the result of the thinking (disposition; thought processes; mind-set, outlook) of the flesh (= attention to Torah boundary-markers, custom and cultus; or: = the human condition) [is; brings] enmity, alienation and discord [streaming] into God (or: hostility unto, or active hatred with a view to, God), for it continues not being humbly aligned and supportive (habitually placed under and submitted; or, as a middle: subjecting, humbly arranging or marshaling itself) to the principle and law which is God (or: in God’s principle; by the Law from God), for neither is it able nor does it have power.


8.  Now the folks continuously existing in the midst of (or: So people being in union with, or centered in,) flesh (= the alienated human condition; or: = the religious system involving flesh sacrifices, Torah boundary-markers/customs) have no power and are not able at any point to please God (or: to fit or adapt to God; or: to be content with God; or: to be acceptable in God).

9.  Yet you folks are not constantly existing within the midst of flesh (or: you are not in union with nor centered on [the alienated human condition, or Torah-keeping with flesh sacrifices]), but rather within spirit, in union with Breath-effect and centered on [His] attitude, since indeed God’s Spirit (or: if so be that [the] Breath-effect which is God; or: if as is the fact that an attitude which corresponds to God) is continuously housing Itself (making His abode; residing; dwelling; by idiom: cohabiting; living together as husband and wife) within and among you folks.  Yet if anyone is not continuously having, or not habitually and progressively holding, Christ’s Spirit and [the Messiah's] Attitude (or: So if a certain person is not regularly possessing a Breath-effect which is Anointed), this one is not habitually existing from Him as his Source (or: is not now having His character or qualities; or: presently is not His).


10.  But since Christ (or: Yet if [the] Anointing) [is] within you folks, on the one hand the body is dead (lifeless) BECAUSE OF sin (through failure, deviation and missing the target), yet on the other hand, the Spirit, Attitude and Breath-effect [is] Life BECAUSE OF an eschatological act of justice that brought a rightwising deliverance into equitable, covenantal relationships within the Way pointed-out (or: on account of the covenantal Faithfulness of a liberating Turn into the Right Direction of the Living Way/Path).

11.  Now since the Breath-effect (or: Spirit; Attitude) of the One arousing and raising Jesus forth from out of the midst of dead folks is continuously housing Itself (making His abode; residing; making His home; by idiom: living together as husband and wife) within, and in union with, you folks, the One raising Christ Jesus forth from out of dead ones will also continue progressively giving Life to (or: will even habitually make alive) the mortal bodies of you folks (or: your mortal bodies) through the constant indwelling of His Spirit (or: the continual in-housing of His Breath-effect; the continuous internal residing of the Attitude, which is Him,) [other MSS: because of His habitually-indwelling Spirit] within and among you folks.


12.  So then, brothers (or: Consequently then, fellow believers), we do not continue being debtors to the flesh (or: we are not folks under obligation in the [alienated human condition, or by the system of flesh sacrifices and Torah observance]), [i.e.,] of the [situation] to be continually living down on the level of and in accord with flesh,

13.  for you see, if you folks are continuously living down on the level of, and in accord with, flesh (= the alienated self, or, the system of flesh sacrifices and Torah observance), you are progressively about to be dying away.  Yet since (or: if) in spirit (or: by [the] Breath-effect; with [His] Spirit; for [the] Attitude), you folks constantly put to death (or: deprive of life; extirpate) the practices and activities of the body (= works of flesh traditions; Torah cultus) you will continue living (or: will be continuously living and progressively possessed of vitality).

14.  For as many as are being continuously led by God’s Spirit (or: habitually brought or conducted in [the] Breath-effect which is God; progressively driven along with an attitude from God), these folks are God’s sons (these continuously exist being sons of God; or: = these are folks who have the character and qualities of God). [comment: echo of the Exodus]


15.  For you folks did (or: do) not receive again a spirit of slavery to fear (or: get slavery’s spirit or breath-effect again, unto fear; or: take an attitude which personifies being a slave [in Egypt or under the Law, leading] into fear again), but rather you received a spirit of being placed as a son (or: a Breath-effect which set you in the position of a son; or: you receive an attitude of one having been adopted [in accord with Greek or Roman law]), within which (or: in union with Whom) we are habitually crying out, "Abba (Dad), O Father!"

16.  The same Spirit (or: spirit; or: The Breath-effect Himself; or: This very attitude) is constantly witnessing together with our spirit (is continuously bearing joint-testimony to our spirit; is habitually co-witnessing for our spirit; is progressively adding confirming testimony and evidence in our attitude) that we are, and continuously exist being, God’s children (ones born of God; children from God [not of the child-escort {Gal. 3:24}], by natural descent).

17.  Now since children (or: Yet if ones born by natural descent), also heirs (possessors and enjoyers of an allotted inheritance; those who hold sway over the allotted portion): on the one hand, God’s heirs, on the other, Christ’s joint-heirs

(or: indeed possessors and enjoyers of an allotment pertaining to God and from God, yet possessors and enjoyers together in an allotment pertaining to Christ and belonging to (Christ) if so be (or: provided) that we are continually affected by sensible experiences together – feeling together; receiving impressions, undergoing passion or suffering together – to the end that we may also be glorified together

(or: can be given a shared appearance; would together receive a manifestation of that which calls forth praise; should be given a joint-approval and a joint-reputation; may be thought of and imagined together [in covenant relationship]). 


18.  You see, I have come to a reasoned conclusion (or: I am reckoning and logically considering) that the effects of the sensible experiences – sufferings, impressions, passions or feelings – of the current season (or: of the situation fitted to the present time) [are] not equivalent (do not balance the scales; are not of equal value or worth), [being] face to face with the glory (or: [are] of insufficient weight when put in balance to the manifestation which calls forth praise as well as the reputation and good opinion) which is progressively about to be disclosed unto us, and for us (or: unveiled into our midst; revealed to and [enter] into us).

19.  For the looking away and watching with the head stretched forward alertly (or: the peak expectation, premonition or intuitive opinion; or: = the concentrated and undivided focus) of the creation is constantly receiving and taking away from out of the unveiling of God’s sons

(or: = the uncovering and revealing of folks who have the character and qualities of God; or: the disclosure pertaining to the sons of God; or: the unveiling and revelation which belongs to God’s sons; or, as an ablative: the disclosure from God's sons).

20.  For you see, the creation (or: that which was formed, framed and founded) was placed, arranged and aligned under subjection in the empty purposelessness (or: subordinated to vanity and by futility; made supportive to fruitless nonsense: in worthlessness, for nothingness), not voluntarily or willingly (from out of [its] being), but rather because of (through; on account of; for the sake of) the one (or: the One) placing [it] under and arranging [it] in subjection (or: in supportive alignment) – based upon an expectation (or: expectant hope)

21.  because (or: that) even the creation itself will continue being progressively set free (will be habitually liberated and constantly made free) from the slavery of, and from, decay – even the bondage of deterioration which leads to fraying and ruin – [and released] into the freedom of the glory and splendor of God’s children

            (or: into the liberty of the manifestation of that which calls forth praise from, and a good opinion which pertains to, God’s born-ones; or: unto the freedom coming from God's imagination pertaining to God's children; or: into the midst of the freedom of the glory from the children [who] belong to God; or: toward centering in the liberty from the glory, which is God, [and] belongs to the children).

22.  You see, we have seen, and thus know and are aware, that all the creation keeps on sighing, groaning or querulously moaning together, and yet progressively travailing together as in childbirth (continues suffering common birthing pains) until now (to the point of the present moment).

23.  Yet not only [this], but further, even we ourselves – constantly holding (or: having; possessing) the firstfruit of, and which is, the Spirit (or: the Firstfruit whose source is the Breath-effect; or: the first offering, or first portion, which is spirit and breath, and is from the Attitude) we ourselves also continually sigh and groan within (in the center of) ourselves, continuously accepting and with our hands taking away from out of a placing in the condition of a son (or: [the] deposit of the Son; a setting in place which is the Son; a constituting as a son; a placing in the Son): the process of the release of our body from slavery

            (or: [and] the loosing from destruction pertaining to the [corporate] body, which is us; or: = the unbinding and release of the body [of Adam; of humanity], which belongs to us).

24.  For in the expectation and with hope we are suddenly made whole and healthy

            (or: You see, by the expectation we are delivered and saved; or: For we were at one point rescued to expectation; or: To be sure, we were kept safe for this expectation)! 

Now expectation (or: expectant hope) being continuously seen or observed is not expectation or hope, for who continues hoping in expectation for what he also constantly sees or observes?

25.  Yet since (or: even if) we continue expecting what we are not seeing (or: observing), we continue taking away and accepting from out of it through remaining under [our present situation and circumstances] (or: through patient, humble, persistent, supportive endurance).

26.  Now similarly (or: likewise; in like manner), the Spirit also (or: even the Breath-effect; the Attitude) habitually takes hold together on the opposite side of a situation so as to assist in our weakness (or: joins with a helping hand in our lack of strength and infirmity), for we have not seen, and thus do not know nor are aware of, the thing which we should think, speak or do toward having things go well unto goodness – to accord with what must be (or: can pray commensurately to what is necessary and down from what is binding), but rather the Spirit Himself (the Breath-effect Itself; this Attitude itself) from above constantly and repeatedly hits the target within us (or: falls in on our behalf; instead of us hits within; falls in for and over us; or: makes hyper-intercession) with unexpressed, unutterable or inexpressible groanings

            (or: in sighs too deep for words; with wordless and inarticulate battle cries of deep emotion; in shouts of victory from the core of His Being).

27.  But the One continuously searching (tracing; exploring; trying to find out [concerning]) the hearts has seen, and thus knows and is aware of, what [is] the effect of the mind-set and way of thinking of the Breath-effect (or: the Spirit’s opinion and thinking; or: the frame of mind and thought of the [person’s] spirit and attitude), that (or: because) down from God (or: in accord with God; on the level of and commensurate with God) it (or: It; He) continually hits on target within (encounters and falls in union; obtains within while interceding), over [the situation of] and for the sake of [the] set-apart folks (saints; holy ones; sacredly different people).

28.  Now [look], we have seen, and thus know and are aware, that to those habitually or progressively loving God – to the folks being called and invited according to [the] purpose

(or: for, in and with the people progressively experiencing love for God – in, with, by and for the people being invited down from an advanced placing, congruent with a design and corresponding to a before-placing and a prior setting forth)  

He is constantly working all things together into good and is progressively working all humanity together into that which is advantageous, worthy of admiration, noble and of excellent qualities,

            [with other MSS: Yet we know that God is continuously joining everything together (or: working together with everything) into goodness by those continuously loving God…]

29.  because those whom He foreknew (whom He knows from previous intimate experience), He also marked out beforehand (determined, defined and designed in advance) [as] copies (joint-forms) of the image (material likeness; portrait; mirrored image) of His Son (or: He previously divided, separated and bounded conformed patterns from the image of His Son) into the [situation for] Him to be (or: to continually exist being) the Firstborn among, within the center of, and in union with many brothers (= a vast family of believers)!

30.  Now [in fact, consider this]: those whom He at one point before-marked-out (or: designates beforehand; [A reads: knew from prior intimate experience]), these He also at once called (or: calls; invited), and whom He called (or: calls; invites), these He also in one stroke rightwised by an eschatological deliverance (or: makes and sets right, frees from guilt and liberates from bondage, while making them fair and placing them in [covenant] relationships in the Way pointed out).  Now further, those whom He rightwised (or: liberates and turns in the right direction; or: = included in covenant), these He also instantly glorified

            (or: makes of reputation which calls forth praise; gives a splendid appearance; gives

            honorable thoughts and imaginations; clothes with splendor).


31.  What, then, shall we say to (or: declare in the face of) these things?  Since (or: If) God [is] over, and above, us (or: on our behalf; for us), who or what [is; will be; can be; will appear] (or: [is] anyone) down against us?  [Nobody!  Nothing!]

32.  Surely (or: Actually; In fact; Certainly), He Who at one point did not spare (or: spares not) His own Son, but further, over [the situation] of us all (or: on behalf of all of us), He at one point handed Him over (or: gives Him up [into the hands of another]), how will He not also, in grace and joyous favor, freely be constantly and progressively giving all things (or: The Whole) to us, together with Him?

33.  Who will bring charges down on (institute proceedings against) God’s selected and chosen ones (the folks picked out by God; the ones gathered out and laid in order, who belong to God)?

God [is] the One continually and progressively rightwising [them] (or: constantly liberating and turning [humanity] in the right direction, repeatedly placing [folks] in the Way pointed out and keeping them in righted relationships, or: = now freeing [them] and including [them] in covenant).

34.  Who [is] the one habitually bringing commensurate evaluations or corresponding decisions (or: constantly condemning and giving a verdict down against; or, as a future: will be separating by following the patterns so as to be indicting or passing sentence)?

Now Christ Jesus [is] at the same time the One dying, yet very much more being aroused and raised [some MSS add: forth from out of dead ones], Who also exists (or: is) within God’s right side (at God’s right hand or position; [note: the place of honor, power and offensive weapons, yet also the place of acceptance and receiving]), Who also continuously hits on-target within (or: falls in with the situation and addresses the concerns) over our [situation and predicament] and on our behalf! [or as a question, and with other MSS: {Will; Would} Christ, the One dying... for us {do this}?]

35.  Who or what will be separating, dividing or parting us away from the Love of and from Christ (or: the separation-overcoming love which is Christ; [other MSS: the God's love within Christ Jesus])?  Pressure (squeezing; affliction; tribulation; oppression), or confinement in a narrow, tight place (distress; difficulty; trouble), or pursuit (the chase of persecution), or famine (or: hunger; deprivation of food), or nakedness (lack of sufficient clothing; deprivation of necessities), or danger (peril; risk), or sword (or: large butcher knife; or: curved weapon for close combat)?

36.  Accordingly as it has been written,

"On Your account (For Your sake; By reason of You) we are progressively being put to death the whole day!  We are logically considered (accounted) as sheep which belong to slaughter (are associated with slaughter)." [Ps. 44:22]

37.  But rather (or: On the contrary), within all these things we are habitually over-conquering (we are remaining completely victorious; we continue more than overcoming) through the One loving us.

38.  For you see, I have been persuaded and now stand convinced that neither death, nor life (or: living existence), nor agents (or: messengers), nor sovereignties (rulers; those in prime position; or: beginnings), nor things being now here (being placed within, at present), nor things about to be (impending, or about to consecutively come), nor powers (or: capabilities),

39.  nor height (effect of being high), nor depth (or: deep places), nor any other or different created thing (or: founded thing; institution) will be having power or be able to separate, divide or part us from God’s Love (or: from the acceptance from God; from the urge toward reunion which is God) which is within Christ Jesus, our Owner (Lord; Master; Possessor).


CHAPTER  9                                                                                                                                        


1.  Truth I presently speak within Christ (or: I am constantly speaking reality in union with [the] Anointed One; centered in [the] Anointing), I am not now lying (or: I do not habitually lie), my conscience (my joint-knowing from having seen together) habitually giving joint-witness (testifying together; giving corroborating evidence) to me (in me; for me; with me) within [the] Holy Spirit (or: in a set-apart spirit and attitude; in union with a Sacred Breath),

2.  that to me (or: for me; in me) a great distressing sorrow (or: an annoying grief), as well as unintermittent (unceasing) consuming pain, continues being in my heart.

3.  For you see, I kept on claiming, while having goodness, holding well-being and possessing ease, that I myself am to be (or: to continuously exist [as]) a result or an effect of something set up as an offering devoted to God (= a sacrifice; [comment: this would correspond to Jesus telling His disciples to follow Him, bearing their crosses]), forth from the Anointing (or: = [thus being separated] from [the body] of Christ; or: arising from the Christ) over [the situation of] (or: for the sake of) my brothers, my relatives (kinsmen; joint or commonly born ones; fellow countrymen) according to flesh (= in the sphere of natural human birth),

4.  the very ones who are Israelites, whose [is/was] the placing in the condition of a son (or: the deposit of the Son; the setting in place which is the Son; the constituting as a son) and the glory (the things which call forth praise and bring a splendid reputation) and the arrangements (or: covenants; [other MSS: the Covenant) and the placing of the Law (or: even the setting of custom and legislation by/as [Torah]) and the sacred service and the promises,

5.  whose [are] the fathers (= ancestors) and forth from out of the midst of whom [is] the Christ (= the Messiah), the [descendant] down the line of flesh (or: on the level of the human realm) – the One continuously being upon all mankind: God, worthy of praise and blessing on into the ages!  It is so (or: – corresponding to natural descent – [is] the Anointed One [= the Messiah] who exists being God: One with a message of goodness, ease and well-being – superimposed on all things – on into the indefinite time periods!  Amen – count on it)!

6.  Yet [it is] not such as that God's Word has fallen out (fallen from the midst, or: fallen out [of line]; or: drifted off course; or: = failed in its purpose), for in consideration of all the folks [springing] forth from out of Israel – not [all] these folks [are] Israel!

7.  Neither because they exist being seed of Abraham [are] all children!  But rather (or: To the contrary),

     "In Isaac shall a seed (= a descendant) continue being called in you (or: For you, a

     seed will continue being named in Isaac; To you, offspring will continue being invited in

     union with Isaac)." [Gen. 21:12]

8.  That is, [some MSS: That is because] the children of the flesh (= those born physically by humans; or: = the self that is produced by influence from the alienated System) – these [are] not the children of God!  But rather, "the children of The Promise" is He continually considering into [being] seed (or: He is constantly counting into [the] Seed; [that] is habitually reckoned and reasonably concluded for a seed).

9.  For the Word (or: message) of Promise [is] this:

"Corresponding to (or: At; In line with) this season (or: In accord with this fitting situation and fertile moment) I will be coming, and then a son will be existing for Sarah (or: shall progressively be by Sarah and will be existing in Sarah)." [Gen. 18:14]

10.  Yet not only so, but further, Rebecca, also, continued having a marriage-bed (= was habitually having sexual intercourse and conceiving children) from the midst of one man, Isaac, our father (= ancestor).

11.  For you see, not as yet being born ones, nor ones practicing (performing; accomplishing) anything good or vile (mean; sorry; careless; bad [p46 reads: worthless; of bad quality; corrupt; evil]) to the end that God's purpose and aim, which He designed and set beforehand, may continually remain (abide; dwell) down from (corresponding to and in accord with) election (a selection; a choosing-out; a choice), not forth from out of works (or: actions), but instead from out of the One repeatedly calling (or: from the continual summoning)

12.  It was said (or: declared) to her that,

     "The greater (by implication: the older) will continue performing as and be a slave to

     and for the smaller (by implication: the younger; the inferior)." [Gen. 25:23]

13.  Just as it has been written,

     "Jacob I love (participate in and accept as on the same ground), yet Esau I regard with

     ill-will (detach from; hate; am unfriendly to; esteem with little affection)." [Mal. 1:2-3]

14.  What, then, shall we continue saying? Not [that there is] injustice (behavior contrary to the Way pointed out) with God?  Of course not (May it not come to be)!

15.  For He is saying to Moses,

     "I will continue being merciful to (will progressively relieve the distress and misery of) whomever I should presently be merciful (or: I may continuously relieve of distress and misery), and I will continue being compassionate to whomever I should (or: may; would) be continuously compassionate." [Ex. 33:19]

16.  Consequently, then, [it is] not of or from the one constantly exercising [his] will (or: [it does] not pertain or belong to habitually intending or designing), nor of the one constantly rushing forward (or: nor does it pertain or belong to the one continuously running or habitually racing), but rather of, from, pertaining to and belonging to God, the One constantly being merciful (or: but from God’s habitually and continuously relieving from distress and misery; or: but to the contrary, [it is] from the One repeatedly dispensing mercy, which is God).

17.  For the Scripture is saying to Pharaoh that,

"Into this itself (or: For this very thing) I roused you forth (I awakened and stirred you to come out), so that I may (or: would) display and demonstrate in you My power and ability, so that My Name would be thoroughly proclaimed (preached and published far and wide) within all the land (or: in the entire earth)." [Ex. 9:16]

18.  Consequently, then, on whom He from time to time wills (or: to whom His will is presently directing) He is continuously merciful (He constantly relieves from distress and misery).  Yet whom He from time to time wills (intends; designs), He continues progressively hardening.


19.  You will ask me (or: protest to me), then, "Why, then, is He still blaming and continuing to find fault?  For who (which one; what) has resisted (stood against or in place of) His intention (the effect of His deliberated purpose and resolve) and is yet still so standing?"

20.  O man (or: human)!  On the contrary, even more, what (or: who) are you – the one habitually answering back to God (or: replying against God; from a position of standing instead and in opposition, judging for God; disputing with God)?

     "The thing molded and formed will not proceed to be saying to the One molding and

     forming, 'Why do you make me thus (or: did you create and construct me this          

     way)?'" [cf Isa. 29:16; 45:9; 64:8]

21.  Or does not the Potter hold authority or have a right pertaining to clay, forth from out of the same kneaded mixture (effect of uniform mixture) to make the one a container (a vessel; an instrument; a utensil) into honor and value, yet the other into an unhonored one (a worthless one; one without value; one deprived of privileges; or: = one for common use)?

22.  Now since (or: So what if) God – habitually willing (or: repeatedly intending) to display and demonstrate inherent fervor, natural impulse, propensity and disposition (or: teeming passion; swelling desire; or: anger, wrath and indignation), and also to make known by personal experience His power and ability – in much long-suffering (long-breathing state of inner quietness; forbearance; pushing anger far away) bears and carries (or: brought forth and produced; or: enduringly supports while moving) containers (vessels; instruments; utensils) of natural impulse (belonging to a passionate disposition; displaying inherent fervor; from teeming passion and swelling desire; or: of anger; having the character of wrath; owned by indignation), being folks having been fully outfitted, thoroughly prepared and made correspondingly adequate for loss (or: having equipped, adapted and adjusted themselves down into ruin, waste and destruction [of their well-being]), and now continuing in this condition,

23.  [it is] to the end that He could and would (or: may) also at some point make known by intimate experience the wealth of His glory (or: of His manifestation of that which calls forth praise; of the glory which is Him; which pertains to His reputation; from His imagination and opinion) upon containers of mercy (instruments of mercy), which He beforehand prepares into [being] (or: made ready and provides into the midst of) a manifestation of [that] glory

24.   – even us, whom He calls (or: at one point summoned; invites), not only from out of the Jews, but further, even from out of the nations (or: out of the ethnic multitudes, also; forth from the Gentiles, too).

25.  And so, as He is saying in Hosea,

     "The one [that is] not My people, I will be continually (or: one-after-another) calling,

     'My people,' and her being one that had not been loved, 'Beloved one;'

26.        "and it will proceed being in the place where it was declared to them, 'You folks [are]

             not My people,' there they will continue being called 'sons of [the] Living God.'" [Hos.

             2:23; 1:10]

27.  Now Isaiah is repeatedly crying out over Israel,

             "If ever (or: Even if) the number of the sons of Israel may (or: should; would) be as the

             sand of the sea, [even] the destitute remainder (or: the fully forsaken; [even] the minority

             under the effect of lack; the subjected, left-behind surviving group; the failing part left

             below) will continue being delivered (saved, healed and made whole; rescued);

             28.        "for the Lord [= Yahweh] will progressively produce a Word of bringing ends together

                          (or: will repeatedly construct a thought of completing combinations; will continue doing an

                          accounting of combining goals together; will continue creating [the] message of finishing

                          things together; will habitually perform [the] Logos of combined maturities and joined

                          destinies) and of cutting things together (of combined or summary cuttings) upon the

                          land (or: earth)." [Isa. 10:22-23]

29.  And further, just as Isaiah before declared,

      "Except the Lord [= Yahweh] of Hosts left a seed down within for us (or: conserved a

      seed in or by us), we would become as Sodom, and we would be made like as (or:

      likened to) Gomorrah." [Isa. 1:9]

30.  What, then, shall we continue declaring?  That [the] nations (ethnic multitudes; Gentiles; non-Israelites) the ones not constantly pursuing (pressing forward rapidly after) rightwisedness (eschatological liberation and covenant inclusion which is right and fair relationship with equitable dealings in accord to the Way pointed out; a turning in the right direction on the Path) overtook, seized and took-down this rightwisedness as a possession: yet [it is] a rightwising, eschatological act of deliverance (a ”being turned” to equity and justice in the Way; = liberation with covenant membership and participation) that [is] forth from out of the midst of faithfulness (or: having its source in [God's] faithfulness/[Christ's] faithful act; or: from loyal trust and confident faith; from having been centered in fidelity)!

31.  However Israel, habitually pursuing a Law which was a rightwisedness from right activities (or: pertaining to fair relationships with equitable dealings in accord to the way [which the Law] pointed out [to them]; or: of a the path to eschatological deliverance) did not precede [the others] into [that] principle or custom (or: did not outstrip or sooner arrive unto [such] a law or custom) of rightwised, eschatological deliverance (or: which is comprised of being turned in the right direction)

(or: = did not reach, ahead of other folks, the righted results of what the Torah had promised).

32.  Through what cause (or: Why)?  Because [the pursuit was] not forth from out of a source of faithfulness (or: fidelity, trust, conviction or faith), but rather as from out of a source of works (actions).  They dash against, trip and stumble on (or: by) “the Stone that caused the Stumbling-effect,” [Isa. 8:14; Lu. 2:34; Hos. 14:9; 1 Pet. 2:7-8]

33.  Just as it has been written,

"Look and consider!  I am repeatedly placing in Zion a 'Stone of Stumbling,' and a 'Rock of a trap-snare.'  And the one habitually believing upon Him (or: It) will not continue being brought to shame, disgrace, or disappointment." [Isa. 28:16]




1.  Indeed, brothers (= family, or, fellow believers), the good thinking (pleasure; consuming desire; good will; delightful imagination) of my heart, and the request (plea; petition) [directed] toward (or: face to face with) God over them (or: for their sake) [is; leads] unto deliverance (salvation; health and wholeness; restoration to their original state and condition) [for them].

2.  For I am habitually testifying and giving evidence among them, because they continue possessing a zeal from God (or: For you see, I can repeatedly bear witness to and for them that they constantly hold God's zeal and they continuously have a boiling jealously and hot aspiration concerning God), but however, not down from (or: on the level of and in accordance with) full and accurate experiential knowledge, recognition or insight (epi-gnosis).

3.  For they, being continuously ignorant of God's rightwising act of deliverance (or: habitually failing to recognize the rightwisedness and fairness of the Way pointed out, which is God, and the right relationships from God in His covenant justice of eschatological liberation) and constantly seeking to establish (to set and make to stand) their own way pointed out with a view to eschatological deliverance (or: plan of right cultic activity and relational dealings [that are informed by the Law]), were not placed under to be humbly and supportively aligned to God's eschatological act of deliverance in the eschatological liberation that came from God (or: subjected to God's just path and Way of fairness, or arranged under the rightwisedness from God [= brought into God's covenant participation in resurrection life]),

4.  for you see, Christ [is] an end of Law (or: for Christ [is] Law’s goal and destiny; for [the] Anointing [is] termination from [the] Law; for Christ [was the] final act of [the] Law) [leading] into the Way pointed out in fair and equitable dealings, and rightwised [covenant] relationships of justice in eschatological liberation, to, for and in everyone habitually trusting and believing

            (or: because Christ [entering] into the pointed-out Way – in everyone normally exercising faith with conviction, and with each person remaining loyal – [is; brings] Law's climax).

5.  For Moses is writing [about] the way pointed out (the equitable dealings, right relationship and cultic observance) [which is] out of the Law [= Torah; some MSS read: from the midst of law], that,

"The person (human) doing (performing) the same things (or: these very things) will be constantly living (passing his existence; exercising functions of life) within them (or: in union with them [other MSS: it] he shall continue living and will be possessed of vitality)." [Lev. 18:5]

6.  Yet the rightwised act of eschatological deliverance (the condition of being liberated and turned in the right direction in the Way pointed out; the fairness and equity of [God’s] justice and right relationship; or: = covenant inclusion/participation) [coming] from out of the midst of faithfulness (or: trusting fidelity; [Christ’s] confident loyalty) is constantly saying thus (is habitually speaking in this manner):

     "You should not say in your heart, 'Who will ascend (climb back up) into the Heaven

     (or: the sky; or: the atmosphere)?'"

– that is, to lead, convey, carry or bring Christ [= the Messiah] down;

7.  Or,

            "'Who will descend (climb down) into the Deep (the Abyss)?'"

that is, to lead, convey, carry or bring Christ back up again from out of the midst of dead ones.

8.  But rather, what is He (or: it) saying?

     "The result of the flow (the gush-effect; or: the saying; the declaration; that which is

     spoken; the speech) is (or: exists) near you – within your mouth and within your

     heart!" [Deut. 30:11-14]

that is, the effect of the gush from The Faithfulness (or: the result of the Flow which is the saying that pertains to the conviction of trust; the effect of the flux and movement of that Faith; or: that which is spoken which is trust; or: the speech and declaration which comes from [Christ’s] Fidelity) which we are habitually announcing publicly (proclaiming extensively),

9.  namely that whenever you can speak the same gush-effect (or: because if you would agree with the result of the Flow) within your mouth, that "Jesus Christ [is] Lord,"

(or: because if at any time you should confess in your mouth the declaration that Jesus [is] Lord; [with other MSS: because if ever you should suddenly avow in your own mouth, “Lord Jesus!”])

and then can trust, in union with your heart, (or: could believe and have confidence within the core of your being) that God raised (or: because God aroused and awakened) Him forth from out of the midst of dead folks, you will proceed being healed and made whole

            (or: will keep on being delivered, kept safe, rescued, saved, and will progressively be restored to your original state and condition).

10.  You see, in (or: by; with) [the] heart (= core of your being) it is progressively believed and trusted (or: a person is repeatedly made loyal and given confidence) [leading] into a rightwised, eschatological deliverance (or: unto being turned in the right direction – with equitable dealings and right relationships – from having been placed within the Way pointed out, which includes covenant inclusion and participation), yet by (or: in; with) [the] mouth the same thing is being repeatedly said (or: it is agreed and habitually confessed and professed) [leading] into the midst of health and wholeness (a rescue; salvation; deliverance into safety).

11.  For the Scripture is saying,

     "Everyone habitually believing (putting trust) upon Him will not continue being

     disgraced, put to shame, humiliated or be disappointed." [Isa. 28:16]

12.  You see, there is no distinction or separation made by putting asunder in order to define or distinguish between Jew and Greek, for the same Lord (Owner; Master) of everyone (or: for the same One [being] Lord of all) is continuously being enriching unto

(or: is constantly abundantly furnishing [Himself] into; or, reading ploutwn as a gen. pl. noun: You see this very Owner of all treasures [is proceeding] into the midst of)

all the folks habitually, in and for themselves, calling upon (or: summoning) Him for help and assistance.

13.   For thus it follows,

            "Everyone – whoever may at some point call upon the Name of the Lord [= Yahweh]

            will proceed being delivered (kept safe; rescued; saved, healed and made whole)!"

            [Joel 2:32]

14.  How, then, can (may; should; would) they at some point call unto (= invoke) One Whom (or: that which) they do not trust or believe (or: did not have faith in)?  And how can (may; should; would) they believe where they do not hear (or: trust in Whom they did not hear)?  And how can they at any point hear apart from a person continually making public proclamation (habitually publishing and extensively heralding)?

15.  Yet how can they publicly proclaim unless they may be sent forth as representatives with a mission (or: as emissaries)?  Just as it has been and stands written,

     "How timely and seasonable [are] the feet of the folks continually bringing and

     announcing goodness (or: the good news of ease and well-being): the good and

     excellent things!" [Isa. 52:7]

16.  But, to the contrary, everyone did not put the ear under hearing obedience (or: However, not all listen in obedience) to the good news (or: message of goodness, ease and well-being).  For Isaiah is saying,

     "O Lord [= O Yahweh], who believes (which one adhered and trusted) in our hearing (or:

     by our hearing; in the thing heard from us)?" [Isa. 53:1]

17.  Consequently, the faithfulness (or: the trust and faith; confidence; loyalty) [comes or arises] from out of the midst of, or from within, hearing, yet the hearing [comes] through a gush-effect of Christ, even through the result of a flow which is Christ (or: through Christ's utterance; through something spoken concerning Christ; or: by means of a declaration which is anointed, or from Christ; through a word uttered which is Christ; [other MSS: God's speech]).

18.  But, I ask, isn't it rather that they didn't pay attention or hear?  On the contrary! (or: However, I am saying, do they fail to hear?  Most certainly!):

             "Their clear, distinct sound (as vibrations of a musical string; = their voice; = their

             utterance) comes out into all the earth (or: went out into the entire land), and their gush-

             effects (results of the flow; or: sayings; the things spoken by them; their declarations) into the boundaries (limits; extremities) of the inhabited area." [Ps. 19:4]

19.  But further, I am asking, isn't it rather that Israel did not recognize, come to know or gain insight (or: However, I say, did not Israel fail to experientially and intimately know)?  First Moses is saying,

              "I will progressively bring rivalry, envy and jealously alongside you folks (or: I will

              provoke you to jealousy) upon [the situation of] a non-nation (a no-nation; upon one not

              a multitude); upon [the situation of] an unintelligent (stupid; unable-to-put-things-

              together) ethnic multitude I will proceed bringing an impulsive mental attitude, anger,

              a vexing indignation and inherent fervor alongside you folks." [Deut. 32:21]

20.  Yet Isaiah is daring and risking without restraint, and is saying,

              "I am (or: was) found by, among and within those not seeking or trying to find Me; I

              become (or: became; was birthed) apparent (visible; obvious to sight; manifest) in (or: by;

              to; with; among) the ones not inquiring about Me." [Isa. 65:1a]

21.  Now toward Israel He is saying,

              "The whole day I stretch and spread out my hands toward a consistently disobeying

              (noncomplying; refusing to believe) and habitually contradicting (refuting; speaking

              instead-of; speaking back against) people." [Isa. 65:2]




1.  I am asking (or: saying), then, God does not (or: did not) thrust away His people, does He (or: did He)? [cf Ps. 94:14]  Certainly not (May it not happen)!  For I myself am also (or: also exist being) an Israelite, forth from out of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe Benjamin.

2.  God does not (or: did not) thrust away His people – whom He by experience intimately foreknew!  Or have you not seen, and thus perceive, in [the passage of] Elijah, what the Scripture is saying as he is repeatedly encountering in God (or: hitting on target when conversing with God), concerning the sphere and condition of (or: down against) Israel?

             3.         "O Lord [= O Yahweh], they kill Your prophets!  They dig down under (thus: undermine

                         to demolish) Your altars!  And as for me, I was left under, alone (or: I'm the only one left

                         below), and they continually seek (are continuously trying to find) my soul (my breath; =

                         they want to kill me)." [1 King 19:10, 14]

4.  To the contrary, what does the useful transaction (the deliberative instruction; the oracle) say to him?

     "I leave down (or: reserve) to Myself (for Myself; in Myself) [other MSS: They have been

     leaving for Myself] seven thousand adult males, those men who do not bend a knee to

     Baal." [1 Kings 19:18]

5.  Thus then, also, within the present season (or: In this way, therefore, even in the current appropriate situation and in union with the present fertile moment) a destitute remainder (or: a forsaken minority under the effect of lack; a left-behind surviving group; a worn-smooth, plain, inferior, unsculptured, unembossed part; a remnant) has been birthed (has come to be and exists) down from a selection of grace (in accord with an election which is grace and a choosing-out for favor).

6.  Now since (or: if) [it is] by grace (in a gift of favor), [it is] no longer from out of works (deeds; actions)!  Otherwise grace (the joyous gift of favor) comes to be no longer grace (or: Else grace is no longer birthed, or comes to be, grace; [some MSS add: but if from out of works, it is no longer grace, otherwise the work is no longer work]).


7.  What, then?  That which Israel is constantly searching for (or: seeking out), this it did not encounter (or: did not hit upon the mark, and thus, obtain), yet The Selected One (the Picked-out and Chosen One; or: the choice collection; the elect – that which is chosen out) hit upon the mark, encountered and obtained it.  But the rest (the folks remaining) were petrified (were turned into stone; were made calloused and were hardened),

8.  just as it has been and now stands written,

"God gives (or: at one point gave) to them a spirit (breath-effect and attitude) of stupor, from receiving a piercing blow (or: deep sleep; a senseless mental condition), eyes of the [condition] not to see, ears of the [condition] not to hear, until this very day (or: until today's day)." [Deut. 29:4; Isa. 29:10]

9.  And David is saying,

            "Let their table be birthed into a snare (a trap) and into a wild beast trap-net and into a trap-stick, even into an effect of repayment to them (for them; in them).

10.        "Let their eyes be darkened, not to see, and let them bend (or: bow) their back together [in bondage] through all (or: every [situation])." [Ps. 69:22-23]


11.  I am asking, then, they do not stumble [on the racetrack] so that they should fall, do they?  Certainly not!  On the contrary, by (or: in) the result of their fall to the side the Deliverance (the Rescue, Salvation, health and wholeness; the restoration to the original state and condition) [is] in, for, to and among the nations (the ethnic multitudes; the non-Jews; the Gentiles; the pagans) unto "the [situation] to bring jealousy alongside them (or: in order to provoke them to jealousy)." [Deut. 32:21]

12.  Now since (or: if) the effect of their fall to the side [brings, or, is] enrichment of the world (universe; = all humanity; or: the realm of the secular; or: the ordered System [outside of Israel]) and the effect of their discomfiture [in the games] and the resultant lessened position (the result of their defeat and loss from being overthrown) [brings, or, is] enrichment of the nations (ethnic multitudes; non-Jews; Gentiles), how much exceedingly more the effects of their filled-full condition (the result of their full measure with the entire contents)!

13.  So I am presently speaking for and to you, the nations (the ethnic multitudes; the non-Jews; the Gentiles).  In as much as (or: For as long as), indeed then, I myself am an emissary (envoy; missionary; one sent on a mission with a commission) pertaining to and belonging to [the] ethnic multitudes (nations; non-Jewish groups; Gentiles; pagans), I am continually building the reputation, appearance and notions of my service and dispensing (or: I am glorifying the function and execution of my attending in waiting upon [you folks]),

14.  if somehow, possibly, I may arouse my own flesh (= my own people) to jealousy and can deliver (or: should save; as a future: I will proceed in rescuing and making whole) certain folks (or: some) from among them.


15.  You see, since (or: if) their casting away (or: their rejection [of the good news]) [is, means or brings the] conciliation of the aggregate of humanity (the changing of the universal system to another level of existence; the complete change for the arranged order to be other than it was; the world's change from enmity to friendship), what [will be] the receiving (the acceptance; the taking or drawing toward one's self as a companion or associate) [of them, (or: the receiving of it)] if not life forth from out of the midst of dead folks?!


16.  Now since (or: But if) the Firstfruit [is] holy (set-apart and consecrated; sacred), the kneaded mixture (the result of the lump which is mingled and reduced to a uniform consistency by treading, kneading or beating) also [is]; and since (or: if) the Root [is] holy (set-apart, sacred, different from the norm), so also [are] the branches (the shoots; the boughs).

17.  Now since some (or: if certain ones) of the branches are broken off (or: were at one point broken out of [the tree]), yet you yourself, being a wild olive tree of the field or forest, you are (or: were) grafted in within (or: among) them, you also came to be (are birthed; are become) a joint-participant (a partner taking in common together with; a co-partaker) of the Root and of the Fatness (= sap) of The Olive Tree (or: of the oil of the olive).

18.  Stop boasting against (or: Do not be constantly vaunting or exulting over) the branches!  Now since you are habitually boasting and exulting (priding yourself), you yourself are not bearing (supporting; sustaining; carrying) The Root, but rather, The Root you!

19.  You will say (or: declare), then, "Branches are broken off (or: were broken out of [the tree]) to the end that I may be grafted in."

20.  Beautifully [put]! (Ideally [said]!; Well [conceived]!)  In lack of faith or trust (or: By unbelief; Because of lack of allegiance) they are broken off (or: were broken out of the midst), yet you yourself stand in faith (or: by trust; with confidence).  Stop being haughty (Don't constantly have high opinions; Do not continually think lofty things), but to the contrary, [be constantly having] an attitude and mindset of respectful awe (or: [Godly] fear; healthy respect)!

21.  For you see, since (or: if) God spares not (or: did not spare) the natural branches (the branches down from, or, in accord with, nature), neither will He continue sparing you!


22.  Observe, perceive and consider, then, God's useful kindness (benevolent utility) and abruptness (sheer cutting-off; rigorous severity) on the one hand upon those falling: abruptness (sheer cutting-off); on the other hand (or: yet) upon you: God's useful kindness (benign, profitable utility), provided (or: if) you should persistently remain in (or: with; by) the useful kindness (or: = continue to be kind and useful).  Otherwise you, also, will proceed in being cut out!

23.  Now they also, if they should not persistently remain in the lack of faith and trust (or: unbelief), they will proceed in being grafted in, for God is able (capable; is constantly powerful) to graft them back in again!

24.  For since (or: if) you yourself were cut out of the olive tree [which is] wild (of the field or forest) by nature, and then to the side of nature (perhaps: = outside of, or contrary to, nature) you are (or: were at one point) grafted in – into a fine (beautiful; cultivated; garden) olive tree – to how much greater an extent (or: for how much rather) will these, the ones in accord with nature, proceed in being engrafted into their own olive tree!

25.  You see, I am not willing for you folks to continue being ignorant of this secret (or: mystery), brothers (= fellow believers; family) – in order that you folks may not continue being prudent, thoughtful or discreet by [other MSS: among or within; other MSS: beside] yourselves (or: = be conceited) – that a petrifying, from a part (a stone-like hardening in some measure; a callousness [extending over] a part), has been birthed and come into existence in Israel (or: has happened to Israel) until which [time] (or: to the point of which [situation]) the effect of the full measure (or: the result of the entire contents; or: = the full impact and full compliment of forces) from the nations (or: of the ethnic multitudes; or: – which are the Gentiles –) may enter in.

            [comment: Does the last clause refer to the entrance of the Roman legions into Jerusalem?  Or, is this referring to the fullness of all ethnic multitudes, which now           includes Israel, entering into the kingdom, since vs. 32, below, says that God has locked up all mankind in disobedience, etc., so as to have mercy upon all?]

26.  So then, thus, in this manner and with this result: all Israel will progressively be delivered (rescued, saved, made whole and restored to their original position [in the olive tree]), according as it has been written,

"The One continuously dragging out of danger and drawing to Himself (The Rescuer; The Deliverer) will repeatedly arrive and be present from out of Zion; He will continue turning irreverence away from Jacob.

             27.        "And this [is] the arrangement for them from beside Me (or: And this [will be] My

                          covenant in, to and for them) when I take away their failures (deviations; sins; mistakes;

                          misses of the target; shooting amiss of the goal)." [Isa. 59:20-21; 27:9]

28.  Corresponding to (With respect to; In accord with; Down from) the Good News (the message of goodness and well-being), on the one hand, [they were] enemies (hostile ones; ones regarded as enemies) because of (or: through; with a view to) you folks; on the other hand, according to (in accord with; down from; corresponding to) the selection (the choosing out; the election) [they are] loved ones, because of (with a view to) the fathers (= ancestors),

29.  for the grace-effects and the calling of God (or: for you see, the results of God's joyous favor and invitation) [are] void of regret and without change in purpose (or: unregretted; not to be regretted afterward; are not subject to recall; = are never taken back).


30.  For just as you folks were once (or: at one time) incompliant to God (or: unconvinced, disobedient, unwilling to be persuaded and stubborn by God), yet now (at the present time) you folks are (or: were) mercied (made the recipients of mercy) by (or: in; with) the incompliance (disobedience; stubbornness; lack of being convinced) of these folks.

31.  Thus, also, these now (at the present time) are incompliant (stubborn; disobedient; unconvinced) by (or: for; to) your mercy, to the end that they also may now be mercied (would be the recipients of mercy).

32.  For you see, God encloses, shuts up and locks all mankind (everyone; the entire lot of folks) into incompliance (disobedience; stubbornness; lack of being convinced), to the end that He could (or: would; should) mercy all mankind (may make everyone, the all, recipients of mercy)!

33.   O, the depth of [the] riches (wealth; resources) and wisdom and intimate, experiential knowledge and insight of God (or: from God)!  How unsearchable (inscrutable) the effects of His decisions (the results of the distinctive separations, judicial awards, judgments and evaluations from Him), and untrackable (untraceable) His ways (paths; roads).

34.  For,

            "Who knows (knew by intimate experience) the Lord's [= Yahweh's] mind?

     Or, who becomes (or: came to be) His planning adviser (His design counselor; the one who makes determinations with Him)?" [Isa. 40:13]

35.  Or,

            "Who gives to Him first, and it will continue being repaid to him?" [Job. 41:3]

36.   Because, forth from out of the midst of Him, then through the midst of Him (or: through means of Him), and [finally] into the midst of Him, [is; will be] the whole (everything; [are] all things; or: = Because He is the source, means and goal/destiny of all things – everything leads into Him)!  By Him (In Him; To Him; For Him; With Him) [is] the glory (the manifestation of that which calls forth praise; the reputation; the notion; the opinion; the imagination; the credit; the splendor) on into the ages.  It is so (Amen; So be it; Count on it)!




1.  Consequently, brothers, I am repeatedly calling you folks alongside to advise, exhort, implore and encourage you, through God's compassions to stand your bodies alongside (or: to set or place your bodies beside) [the] Well-pleasing, Set-apart (Holy; Different-from-the-usual), Living Sacrifice by God (or: in God; for God; to God; with God), [this being] your sacred service which pertains to thought, reason and communication (or: your reasoned and rational service; the logical and Word-based service from you folks; or: = temple service).

2.  And stop constantly conforming yourselves to (or, as passive: So then, quit being repeatedly molded by, fashioned for or patterned together with) this age [with other MSS: and not to be continuously configured to this age, or not to constantly remodel yourself for this age], but on the contrary, be progressively transformed (transfigured; changed in form and semblance) by the renewing (or: in the renewal; for the making-back-up-new again) of your mind [with other MSS: from The Mind; of the intellect; pertaining to the faculties of perceiving and understanding; of the mindset, disposition, inner orientation and world view] into the [situation and condition for] you folks to be habitually examining in order to be testing and, after scrutiny, distinguishing and approving what [is] God's will (design; purpose; resolve; intent): the good and well-pleasing, even perfect (finished, complete and destined)!

            (or: = the thing [that is] virtuous, satisfying and able to succeed in its purpose.)


3.  For, through the grace and favor being suddenly given to me, I am saying to (or: for) everyone being among you folks not to be continually over-opinionated or elated (to be constantly hyper-thinking to the point of being haughty, arrogant or having a sense of superiority; to be habitually over-thinking issues; to constantly mind things above; to be overweening) beyond what is necessary (binding; proper), but rather to think (mind; be disposed) into the disposition to be sane and of a sound mind, as God divides and distributes (or: parted) to, in and for each one a measure of faith (a meted amount of firm persuasion; a measured portion of trust; a [specific or allotted] ration of confidence and loyalty).

4.  For you see, just as (or: according to what is encompassed) in one body we continuously have (constantly hold and possess) many members, yet all the members do not have the same mode of acting (do not constantly hold the same function),

5.  thus we, the many, are and continue to exist being one body within Christ (in union with [the] Anointed), yet individually (or: the situation being in accord with one), members of one another (or: but still, [being] on one level, [are] members whose source is, and who belong to, each other).


6.  Now constantly holding (having; possessing) excelling grace-effects (or: gracious results of favor that carry-through), down from, in accord with and to the level of the grace and joyous favor being given to us, in us and for us, whether prophecy – [let it be] down from and in line with the above-word of the faith

            (or: in accord with the analogy of the loyalty; according to the proportion of trust; following

            the pattern of the corresponding relationship that pertains to the Faith; down along 

            the upward-thought of faith or the up-message of the belief; in accordance with   

            conformability from the faithfulness; on the level of the correspondence and ratio of


7.  or whether serving (thoroughly dispensing in attendance on a duty) [let us be, or live] in the service (the attendance to the duty; the arrangement for provision; the aid through dispensing); or whether the one constantly teaching – [let the person continue] in the teaching (the instructing or training);

8.  or whether the person normally performing as a paraclete (one habitually calling alongside to aid, admonish, encourage, exhort and give relief) [let the person flourish] in the calling alongside to give relief and aid, as well as for admonition, encouragement and exhortation;

the one habitually sharing (imparting; giving together) in simplicity (singleness; or: = with generosity);

the one constantly setting himself before [a situation] or being a caregiver (or: standing in front and presiding; or: being in charge of giving care or aid) – in diligent haste (= eagerly);

the one continuously mercying (applying mercy) in cheerfulness (pleasantness; gleeful abandon).


9.  Love (or: The inner movement toward overcoming existential separation) [is] not overly critical and [does] not [make] hyper-distinctions or excessive divisions or separations (or: [is] unfeigned, unhypocritical and [does] not play a role as an actor).


With abhorrence (or: strong detesting) [be] constantly shrinking away from the worthless thing (the bad situation; the painfully toilsome endeavor; the base, cowardly or evil thing) [and be] habitually gluing or welding yourself (attaching yourself and adhering) to The Good One (or: the profitable situation; the virtuous endeavor).


10.  In sisterly love (or: By fond affection, as for members of a family,) unto one another, [be] tenderly affectionate folks who express warm regard, being people constantly taking the lead in the honor (by and with the estimation of value or worth) of one another

            (or: habitually esteeming one another first in value; constantly giving preference to one another in respect).

11.  [Be] eager and in diligent haste – not slothful, lazy or hesitating folks.  In the Breath-effect (or: By the Spirit; With this attitude), [be] people constantly boiling hot!  For the Lord (or: In the Owner; By the Lord; To the Lord [= Yahweh or Christ]; [D* F G & others: For the situation; In the season]), [be] folks constantly slaving (repeatedly performing as slaves)!

12.  In and with expectation (or: By expectant hope) [be] people continuously rejoicing; in pressure (squeezing; tribulation; compression) [be] folks constantly remaining under to give support (or: humbly enduring); in thinking or by acting, and with speaking, toward having goodness, ease and well-being (or: by and with prayer) [be] people habitually persevering (persisting in adherence and engagement).

13.  To the (or: For the; In the) needs of the set-apart folks (the holy ones; the saints) [be] people continuously sharing (contributing/participating in partnership from common existence).  [Be] folks habitually pursuing (rapidly following; eagerly pressing toward) the love of and for foreigners (or: Follow the course of hospitality by fondness expressed in kindness to strangers).

14.  You folks keep on speaking well of (or: repeatedly think goodness for; continue blessing) the people consistently pursuing and persecuting you: be continuously blessing (speaking well of [them] or thinking goodness for [them]) and stop cursing (or: you must not continue praying down on, or wishing anything against, [things, situations or people])!

15.  Practice (or: Be constantly) rejoicing with those who are presently or habitually rejoicing, and constantly weep (or: cry; lament) with those presently (or: habitually) weeping;

16. in this very same vein, continue being folks who are focusing your thinking into one another: not being those constantly setting their minds on the high positions or elite social statuses (or: don't be corporately arrogant), but rather, being folks consistently led away together to the low, humble ones (or: by the humble people; in the low things; = associate with folks of low social standing).


You folks must not habitually become people of a particular mind-set (or: Stop engendering corporate arrogance or producing opinionated folks) side-by-side with, and among, yourselves (or: = Stop being those who are wise or conceited in their own opinions and in their own eyes)!


17.  To no person practice giving away (returning or repaying) evil in exchange for evil (ugly in the place of ugly; worthless, bad, ill, unsound, poor quality over against the same)!

Habitually being folks taking thought in advance for fine things (or: constantly providing ideal things; continuously giving attention ahead of time with regard to things of good form and quality; repeatedly having forethought for beautiful [situations]) in the sight of all humanity,

18.  since [you are] full of power (or: if capable; if or since able) regarding that which has its source in you folks (or: as to that which proceeds from yourselves corporately), [live] being folks continuously at peace with all mankind (or: being in harmony n the midst of all people),

19.  not being folks habitually getting justice for yourselves (not maintaining what is right concerning yourselves; not avenging yourselves), beloved ones, but on the contrary, you folks must yield the position held in anger (or: give a place for [His] natural impulse, propensity, passion and personal emotion; give place to [His] intrinsic fervor; relinquish [your] right to anger or wrath), for it has been written,

"'In Me (or: For or By Me) [is] maintenance of justice (execution of the Way pointed out; working out of the right); I Myself will continue giving away, instead (or: I will progressively be making a recompense [to you]; or: I will continue taking the opposing position of giving [it] away; or: in its place, I Myself will repeatedly repay [you]),' the Lo = Yahweh] is habitually saying."

            [Deut. 32:25; comment: if we are not to practice giving away evil in exchange for evil (vs. 17, above), then we should not expect the Lord to do this]

20.  But further,

     "If your enemy (the one hostile to you) should perhaps be hungering (or: continues hungry), continue feeding him morsels (supplying him with food); if he may continue thirsting (be constantly thirsty), continue giving drink to him (causing him to drink), for while constantly practicing (performing; doing) this you will progressively pile on and heap up burning coals (embers) of fire upon his head." [Prov. 25:21-22]

[comment: the directives of feeding and giving drink correspond to what was to be done for brothers in Matt. 25:35, 40; the metaphor of heaping coals may correspond to Isa. 6:6 where a coal from the incense altar purged sin, so being put on his head may be a picture of purging his thinking; Wuest suggests this as supplying a needed source of fire for someone's home, meeting a desperate need – Word Studies, vol. 1, p. 220; as the first two are blessings, I suggest that this latter also is]

21.  Do not be habitually conquered under (or: Stop being overcome by) the worthless (the bad of quality; the ugly and unsound; the evil), but to the contrary, be constantly conquering (overcoming; victorious over) the worthless (the unsound, the bad and the ugly; the evil) [by being] in union with The Good One (or: [a participant] within what is profitable; or: in the midst of virtue).

            [comment: this verse points to a positive interpretation of the burning coals in vs. 20]




1.  Every soul (or: = Everyone) is to be continuously placed and arranged, or aligned, in a supportive position by superior (or: excelling) authorities (or: must be subjected to rulers holding dominion and jurisdiction above [him]; [p46, D*, F, G, it, & Ire. read: To every superior authority you folks must subject yourselves]).  For an authority does not exist except under God (or: For there is no authority, except by God), and the existing ones are those which have been arranged and set in order, under God (placed in their relative positions by God).

2.  So that, the one constantly placing himself in opposition to the authority (or: the man resisting and posting an array as to battle against or to stand instead of the authority) has taken a stand against God's precise and complete arrangement (or: institution), and the ones having taken an opposing stand, and remaining in determined resistance, will progressively take to themselves (or: will continue receiving in themselves) a result of a decision (the effect of that which [God] decides to do or to bring to pass; a judgment-effect; a result of separating for evaluation).

3.  For the chief ones (those in first position or headships; the princes or rulers; the magistrates) are not a fear to the good work (or: for virtuous and profitable action; [F*, Ethiopic: worker of excellence]), but rather, for the worthless (the ugly; the base; the evil; the one of poor quality).

Now are you not wanting to constantly fear and be wary of (or: So are you normally desiring to be unafraid of) the authority?

Keep doing the good (the virtuous; the profitable), and you will continue having praise (applause; commendation) forth from it [i.e., the authority],

4.  for it is God's servant (attendant who renders service or does a duty; an aid in dispensing; one who arranges for provision) for you (or: to you), [directing you] into the good (the profitable; the virtuous).  Yet if you should be constantly doing the worthless (the evil; the base; the thing of poor quality; the ugly), be fearing with a healthy respect, for it is not purposelessly (aimlessly; vainly) continuing to bear the sword!  For it is God's servant, a maintainer of what is right (an obtainer and executor of justice) into a fruitful fervor (to a strong personal emotion; unto an angry result; unto [its] personal bent) for (or: in; to) the person constantly practicing or performing the worthless (the ugly; the poor of quality; the evil).

5.  On which account (or: Wherefore) [there is] compelling necessity (or: compression) to constantly be subjected and humbly aligned in support (or, as a middle: to be subjecting and aligning oneself; to place oneself under; to humbly subordinate oneself), not only (or: solely) because of (or: through) strong personal emotion (intrinsic fervor; natural disposition; swelling desire and teeming passion; or: indignation, anger or wrath), but further, also, because of (or: through) the conscience (the mutual knowing from the together-seeing).

6.  For you see, because of this you folks continually fulfill the obligation by paying tribute-taxes brought on by a foreign ruler – for they are God's public servants (officials; officers), men constantly attending to (staying by and persisting at) this very thing [i.e., duties].

7.  Render (give away in answer to a claim; pay) the debts (the duties; what is owed) to everyone: to the tax [collector], the tax; to the [one collecting] civil support tax, the civil government tax; to [whom] fear (or: reverence) [is due], fear (or: reverence); to the one [due] honor and value, honor and value.

8.  You folks are not to be continual debtors (or: do not be in the habit of owing even one thing) to anyone, except to be constantly loving one another, for the person continually loving the different one (or: the other person) has made full the Law (has fulfilled law [or: = Torah] and custom)

            (or: You see, the one constantly loving has fulfilled the other, different law).

9.  You see, the [Law, or Torah, says or prophesies],

            "You will not continue committing adultery,"

            "You will not continue committing murder,"

            "You will not continue stealing,"

            "You will not continue to over-desire (crave; covet; lust)," [Ex. 20:13-14; Deut. 5:17-18]

and if any different implanted goal (impartation of the finished product within; inward directive), it continues being brought to a head, summed up and united again in this word, namely,

            "You will continue loving your near one (participate with uniting and unambiguous acceptance with your close one, associate, or neighbor) as yourself." [Lev. 19:18]

10.  Love is not habitually working [the] worthless (poor quality; base; bad; evil; harm) for (or: to; with) the near one (the associate; the neighbor).  Love [is], then, that which fills up Law's full measure (the entire contents of law and custom; [the] Law's [= Torah's] fulfillment).


11.  This also – being folks having seen and thus knowing the season (the fit of the situation; the appointed fertile moment) that [it is] by this time (or: already) an hour to be aroused (or: awakened) out of sleep, for now our rescue (our deliverance; our wholeness, health and salvation) [is] closer than when we came to trust (or: we believed with faith and conviction).

12.  The night advances, and the day has approached and is presently near.  We should put, then, the acts of the Darkness (works from the realm of the shadows; actions that belong to dimness and obscurity) away from ourselves (or: take off and put away the deeds pertaining to darkness; = ignorance; that which was before the light arrived), and clothe ourselves with the instruments (tools; weapons; implements; [some MSS: works; deeds]) of Light (or: The Light).

13.  As within [the] Day, we should (may; can) walk about (= live our lives) respectably (reputably; decently; with good form; mannerly; pleasing to look upon; presentably) not in festive processions (or: orgies; revelries; excessive feastings; carousing) and collective drunkenness (intoxications); nor in beds (i.e., sexual interludes) and outrageous behaviors (shamelessness; vice; loose conduct; indecencies); not in strife (or: contentious disposition) and in jealousy (or: envy)

14.  but rather, you folks must clothe yourselves with (or: enter within and put on) the Lord, Jesus Christ, and stop (or: do not continue) making forethought (constructing provision; planning ahead; performing provident care) into excessive desires of the flesh (= into rushing upon emotions which pertain to the inner self or the estranged humanity; = into the setting of feelings and longings upon something of the human nature that is oriented to the System).




1.  So constantly reach toward and receive in your arms (take as a companion, admit to your home, society and friendship, and then partner with) the one continuing without strength in the faith or by the Faithfulness (or: the person weak in trust, confidence and loyalty) not [putting him] into separated distinctions (or: not [pushing the issue] into disputed discriminations for a decision) based upon or pertaining to opinions (or: reasoned considerations; thought processes; dialogues or disputes; things being thought through; thoroughly considered and settled accounts).

2.  One person, indeed, is habitually trusting (is continually believing; continues to have faith) to eat everything, yet the person being constantly weak (without strength) continues (or: is normally) eating vegetables.

3.  The person habitually eating the one thing must not constantly make nothing out of (= look down on) the person not eating.  And the person not normally eating the one thing must not constantly make a decision about (separate away from; make a distinction between; pass judgment on) the one habitually eating, for God reaches toward him and takes him in His arms (receives him as a companion and a friend, and has taken him as a partner).

4.  You, who are the person constantly judging (separating away; making a distinction or a decision about) another man's house-servant (domestic)!  By (In; To; For; With) his own Lord (Master; Owner) he continues standing, or, he is falling.  Yet he will repeatedly be made to stand, for you see, the Lord [= Yahweh or Christ] is constantly able (perpetually powerful) to make him stand.

5.  One person, on the one hand, is habitually discriminating (deciding; separating; passing judgment; making a distinction): a day from (or: beside) a day (or: = [one] day more than, or compared with, [another] day).  Yet, on the other hand, another is habitually deciding for every day (or: is constantly separating each day [as alike, or, as set-apart]).  Let each one habitually be fully led within his own mind (or: Each person must constantly be carried to full measure in union with his own mind [on this matter]).

6.  He who is habitually minding (being disposed to; being opinionated about) the day, in the Lord [= Yahweh] is continuously opinionated (or: for the Lord [= Christ] is he [thus] minding or being disposed; [some MSS add: and yet the person not minding the day, to, for or in the Lord he is not minding it]).  And the one habitually eating, in the Lord [= Yahweh or Christ] is he eating, for he habitually gives thanks to God (constantly expresses gratitude by God, for God and in God).  And the one not eating is not eating in God (to God; for God), and habitually expresses gratitude for God (in God; gives thanks to God).


7.  You see, not one of us is living to himself (for himself; by himself; in himself), and not one is dying away by himself (in himself; for himself; to himself).

8.  For it follows, both if we are (or: should be) living, in the Lord (or: for, to and by the Lord [= Yahweh or Christ]) we are (or: could and should be) living, and then, if we may (or: would) be dying, in, for, to and by the Lord we would be dyingThen, both if we are living, and if we may be dying, we are the Lord's (we constantly exist being of [Yahweh]; we continuously belong to the Lord; we are from the Owner).

9.  For into this [situation] Christ not only died away, but also now lives (= came back to life again), to the end that He would (or: should) be Lord (Owner; Master; Possessor) both of dead folks as well as of living people.

10.  But you!  Why are you constantly judging (discriminating against; separating away; making a decision about) your brother (= fellow believer; or: = fellowman)?  Or why are you also habitually making light of (making nothing out of; setting at naught; treating with scorn or contempt) your brother?


For you see, we will all continue standing in attendance alongside on God's elevated place (platform or stage which is ascended by steps, from which one speaks in a public assembly; or: we will all repeatedly present ourselves at the seat, dais or throne which is God [some MSS: Christ]),

11.  for it has been written,

     "I, Myself, am continuously living.  The Lord [= Yahweh] is saying that in Me (by Me; to Me; for Me) every knee will repeatedly bend in worship, or, to sit down (or: I live, says the Lord, because every knee will repeatedly bend to sit down in Me), and every tongue will continue to agree, bind itself and promise to God (speak out of the same word in God; publicly acclaim/acknowledge God; openly profess by God)." [Isa. 45:23]

12.  Consequently, then, each one of us will continue giving a word (presenting a message; rendering an account) about himself to God (or: for God; by God; in God).

13.  No longer, then, should we continue judging (making decisions about; discriminating against; separating away) one another, but rather, to a greater extent you folks must decide this: not to continue placing (or: setting) the stumbling-block (that which results in tripping) for or in the brother; neither a snare (a trap-spring; a cause for tripping or becoming trapped).

14.  I have seen to know (or: have perceived), and I have been persuaded and now stand convinced in union with [the] Lord Jesus, that nothing (not one thing) [is] common (profane; ceremonially defiled; unclean; contaminating; = the opposite of set-apart or holy) through itself, except to (in; by; for) the person considering (or: logically accounting and reckoning) anything to be common (profane; etc.); to (for; in; by) that one [it is] common and unclean.


15.  For instance, if because of solid food (or: the effect of something eaten) your brother is continually made sad (made sorry, distressed or grieved), you are no longer continuing to walk about (= living your life) in accord with (or: down from and on the level of) Love (or: you are not yet habitually walking [your path] in participation with transcendent unity of unambiguous, uniting acceptance toward others).  Do not, by your food (or: for your solid food), progressively destroy away (lose by ruining; bring to loss) that person over whom Christ died.

16.  Do not cause your good thing (or: the excellence and virtue which pertain to you) to be slandered (defamed; insulted; blasphemed; vilified; have its light hindered),

17.  for you see, God's kingdom (or: the reign-and-dominion which is God; the expression, influence and activity of God’s sovereignty) is not (or: does not exist being) solid food and drink, but rather, eschatological deliverance into fair and equitable dealing which brings justice and right relationship in the Way pointed out (being turned in the right direction; rightwisedness; also = covenant inclusion and participation), peace (and: harmony; = shalom) and joy (or: happiness; rejoicing) within set-apart Breath-effect (or: in union with and amidst a dedicated spirit and a sacred attitude; or: in [the] Holy Spirit).

18.  You see the one continuously slaving for and in the Christ in this [realm, sphere or regard] [is; continues being] well-pleasing (well-satisfying; fully acceptable) to (or: in; by; with) God, and approved (after examination and testing) by people (or: among mankind).

19.  Consequently, then, we are continuously pressing forward and pursuing the things pertaining to, belonging to and which are the peace and harmony [= shalom] and the things pertaining to, belonging to and which are the act of building a house, pertaining to [input] into one another (or: which [effect] edification [infusing] into each other).


20.  Stop tearing down (dissolving; loosing down; demolishing) God's work for the sake of solid food (or: on account of the effect of what is eaten).  Indeed, all things [are] clean (= ceremonially pure; [Aleph2 adds: to the clean ones]), but on the other hand, [it is] bad (harmful; unsound; base; wicked; evil; not as ought to be) for (or: to; in; with) the person who by habitually eating [experiences] an effect of [or causes] stumbling through it.

21.  [It is] beautiful (fine; as it ought to be; profitable; ideal) not to eat meat (animal flesh), neither to drink wine, nor even that in which your brother habitually stumbles (strikes himself against [it]), or is being constantly snared, or is continually weak.


22.  The faith, trust, confidence and fidelity which you yourself continue to have, hold it in accord with (in line with, on the level of, and corresponding to) yourself in God's sight and presence (or: = Keep your personal faith between you and God).  Blessed and happy [is] the one not constantly judging himself (evaluating himself; separating and dividing things within himself; criticizing himself; making decisions or determinations about himself) within that which he is habitually examining to test and to prove (or: in what she normally approves).

23.  Now the person continually wavering with diverse evaluations, being undecided, has been and remains correspondingly evaluated (or: commensurately decided about; separated by following the pattern and judged accordingly; condemned), if he should eat, because [it is] not forth from out of faith (or: it does not have trust as its source).  And everything which [is] not forth from out of faith (or: [does] not arise from trust and conviction) is a failure to hit the target (exists being an error; is a deviation from the goal; continues being sin and a mistake).




1.  Now we ourselves, the able ones (the powerful people), owe and thus are constantly obliged (or: are continually indebted) to pick up and habitually carry (or: embrace) the weaknesses (the results of being without strength) of the unable ones (the powerless or disabled people; the incapable), and not to constantly be pleasing ourselves.

2.  Let each one of us be habitually pleasing to the near one (or: be continuously accommodating for [his] neighbor or associate), [leading] into The Good, toward building the House (or: unto [his] good, virtue and excellence: toward edification).

3.  For Christ also did not please Himself (or: For even the Anointed One does not make accommodations for Himself), but rather, just as it has been written,

            "The insults (unjustifiable verbal abuses; reproaches) of those habitually insulting You fell (or: fall) upon Me." [Ps. 69:10]

4.  You see, as much as was written before was written [leading] into the teaching (the instruction and training) [which is] ours (or: was written unto and for our instruction), to the end that through the persistent remaining-under to give support (the humble yet relentless endurance in handling the blows), and through the calling-alongside of the Scriptures (or: through the Scriptures' comfort, consolation, relief, aid, support and performance as a Paraclete) we may constantly hold expectation (or: can continue having the expectant hope).

5.  Now may the God of the persistent remaining-under to give support (or: Who has the qualities of this humble, patient and relentless endurance of the blows) and of the calling-alongside for comfort, relief, consolation, aid and support (or: the God Who is humble, persevering endurance and is the essence of the encouraging performance of a Paraclete) give to (or: grant for) you folks to be constantly mutually disposed (to be minding the same thing; to be of this very opinion) within and among one another, down from (or: in accord with and in the sphere of) Jesus Christ [other MSS: [the] Anointed Jesus; = Jesus the Messiah],

6.  to the end that at the same time, with a unanimous rush of passion, you folks may (or: would) in one mouth continuously glorify (or: progressively enhance the reputation of and the opinion about) the God and Father of our Lord, Jesus Christ.


7.  Wherefore, be constantly reaching out with your hands and taking one another in your arms (welcoming and receiving one another as partners), just as the Christ (or: the Anointed) also in this way receives you as partners (takes you [B, D* & P read: us] in His arms; took you to Himself), into God's glory (or: the glory from, and which is, God)!


8.  For I am saying and laying out the idea [that] Christ has been birthed to become, and remain, a Servant and Dispenser from circumcision (or: an Attendant, Helper and Minister of and pertaining to [the] Circumcision [i.e., God’s covenant people]), over [the situation of] God's reality (or: Circumcision's Dispenser of provisions for the sake of a truth from and about God, and a reality which is God), into the standing to confirm (stabilize; make good; cause to stand by stepping in place on a good footing; or: to guarantee the validity of) the promises from, which pertain to, and which belong to, the fathers (or: the patriarchal promises),

9.  and on the other hand [to place on good footing and confirm the standing of] the ethnic multitudes (the nations; the non-Israelites; the pagans), [for them] to glorify God (to enhance the reputation of and the opinion about God) over [the situation of] mercy (for the sake of [His] mercy), just as it has been written,

     "Because of this I will continue openly professing and acclaiming You (speaking out of the same word for and to You; agreeing and promising) within ethnic multitudes among nations that are pagans and Gentiles), and I will continue playing music (striking the string; making melody; singing with musical accompaniment) to, for and in Your Name." [2 Sam. 22:50; Ps. 18:50]

10.  And again he is saying,

     "Be of a good frame of mind (Be merry and glad; Have thoughts of wellness), you ethnic multitudes (non-Jews), together with His people." [Deut. 32:43]

11.  And again,

     "You folks – all the multitudes (all nations; all of the Gentiles) be continually praising the Lord [= Yahweh]." [Ps. 117:1]

12.  And again, Isaiah is saying,

            "There (or: He) will continue being The Root (or: the Sprout from the root) of Jesse, even the One habitually standing up (placing Himself back; raising Himself up) to continue being Ruler (being The Chief; to repeatedly be the Beginner) of multitudes (ethnic groups; of nations; of Gentiles).  Upon Him ethnic multitudes (non-Jews; nations) will continue placing their expectation (will rely; will hope)." [Isa. 11:10]


13.  Now may the God of Expectation (or: the God Who is the Expectant Hope) make you full of all joy and peace (or: harmony) within the midst of constant trust and in union with continual operation of faith and believing, [leading] into the midst of continually surrounding you with abundance within The Expectation (or: in union with expectant hope) within [the] power of a set-apart spirit (or: within [the] Holy Spirit's ability; or: in union with a power which is, and whose source is, set-apart Breath-effect and sacred attitude).


14.  Now, my brothers (Family members; fellow believers), I myself also have been persuaded and remain convinced about you that you yourselves are (or: exist being) folks stuffed full of goodness (bulging with excellence and quality), being those having been filled and remaining full of all The Knowledge (intimate, experiential knowledge and insight; [with other MSS: all gnosis]), being folks continuously able and empowered, also, to habitually put one another in mind (or: to place [thoughts] in each other's mind; to advise or admonish).

15.  Yet I more daringly write to you (or: Yet with assumed resolution I outspokenly write to you; [other MSS add: brothers; = fellow believers]) partly as habitually calling you back to full recollection (causing you to be completely remembering) because of the grace and favor being given to me from [other MSS: by; under] God,

16.  into the [arranged ability for] me to be Christ Jesus' public servant into the nations (a public worker of Jesus Christ unto the ethnic multitudes and pagans), constantly doing the work of a priest for God's good news (or: habitually functioning as the Temple for the message of the goodness, which is God), to the end that the offering composed of the ethnic multitudes (or: the act of bearing forward gifts from the pagans; the approaching of the nations as an offering) can become well-received and pleasingly acceptable, it being [an offering; a carrying toward] having been set-apart and remaining sacred within the midst of holy spirit and a sacred attitude (or: in union with a set-apart Breath-effect; within [the] Holy Spirit).


17.  I have and continuously hold, then, the boast (the glorying; the exulting) within Christ Jesus (or: in union with Anointed Jesus) about the things facing toward (or: with a view to; face-to-face with) God.

18.  You see, I will not venture to speak (or: tell) anything of which (or: what) Christ does not (or: did not) work down, produce and bring into effect through me [leading] into a submissive giving of the ear (or: humble, obedient hearing and paying attention) from [the] ethnic multitudes (or: of non-Jews, nations and pagans) by an arranged speech and message as well as by a work (or: in word and in action or deed) in a power of signs and of miracles, [that is], in [the] power of God's Spirit (or: in union with an ability from God's Breath; in an ability from an Attitude which is God [other MSS: in the midst of set-apart Breath-effect])

19.  with a view for (in the purpose for) me to have filled [the region] from Jerusalem even, around in a circuit, as far as Illyricum [with] the good news of, from, and concerning the Anointed One (or: the message of goodness, ease and well-being – which is Christ).

20.  Now thus (or: in this manner) am I constantly loving the honor, which is my driving ambition, to habitually be proclaiming the message of goodness and well-being where Christ is (or: was) not named, to the end that I should not be building upon another person's foundation.

21.  But just as it has been written,

            "They, to whom it was not reported concerning Him, will progressively see!

     And they who have not heard will progressively understand from things flowing together." [Isa. 52:15]

22.  For this reason (Wherefore), also, I was repeatedly being cut-in on (interrupted; hindered) many times and by many things – in regard to coming to you folks.

23.  Yet now I am no longer holding a place (or: having a territory; or: = having an opportunity) within these regions, but am holding (or: having) a great longing to come to you – for many years –

24.  as whenever I may be traveling (journeying; proceeding) into Spain.  For I continue expecting to gaze on you (or: hoping to get a look at and view you), while passing through, and to be escorted (or: sent forward with funds and supplies) there by you, if first I can be filled within, in part, from you (or: could be in some measure satisfied by your company).

25.  But now I am progressively traveling into Jerusalem, continually performing as a servant in dispensing (or: functioning as an attendant; or: supporting and supplying necessities) to the set-apart folks (the holy ones; the saints; sacred people).

26.  You see, Macedonia and Achaia take delight and were well-pleased to make some common sharing (a certain participating contribution from partnership in common existence) into the poor (unto the destitute) of the set-apart folks (holy ones; saints) in Jerusalem.

27.  For they take delight and were well-pleased, and are their debtors, for since the ethnic multitudes (the nations; the Gentiles; the non-Jews) have common participation and shared existence in their spiritual things, they also continue indebted to perform communal service to and for them in things pertaining to the material life (or: fleshly things).

28.  Bringing this, then, to fruition (or: Attaining this goal; Coming upon completion, then, of this) and myself sealing (or: stamping an identifying mark) to them (or: on or for them; [omitted by p46 B]) this fruit, I will proceed going away, through the midst of you folks, into Spain.

29.  Now I have seen and thus know (or: am aware) that when coming (or: going) to you I will continue coming (or: going) in an effect of the fullness of Christ's message of goodness

(or: within that which fills up pertaining to [the] good word about Christ; in a result of the entire contents of well-speech from [the] Anointing; in union with an effect of the filling of blessing, which is [the] Anointed One).

30.  So I am calling you alongside (entreating and encouraging you), brothers, to struggle together with me (or: to contend and fight by my side, as in the public games), through our Lord (Master; Owner), Jesus Christ, even through the Spirit's love (or: and by means of the uniting and accepting love which is the Breath-effect; or: as well as through the urge toward reunion from this Attitude), within the thoughts and words toward having goodness and well-being [directed] toward God over me (or: in union with prayers, face to face with God, for my behalf),

31.  to the end that I may be dragged out of danger from the habitually incompliant (disobedient; stubborn; unconvinced) folks within Judea, and that my attending service of dispensing which is directed into Jerusalem may come to be well-received by, and acceptable to, the set-apart people (holy ones; saints; sacred folks)

32.  in order that, in coming to you in joy through God's will and purpose, I myself will proceed to be taking rest, repose and refreshing in company with you folks.

33.  Now the God Who is The Peace (the God Who has the characteristics of Peace; the God of and from harmony [= Shalom]) [is] together with all of you folks.  Count on it (It is so; Amen)!




1.  Now for (or: with) you folks I continue standing together with Phoebe, our sister (or: Now I am placing Phoebe, our sister, with you people; Now I am recommending Phoebe, our sister, to you [community members]), she being also an attending servant of the called-out community (or: a dispenser to the assembled congregation) [which is] in Cenchrea,

2.  to the end that you folks would welcome, provide hospitality, and may reach out with your hands and take her in your arms, within [the] Lord [= Yahweh or Christ], worthily (in a manner of equal value) of the set-apart folks (of the saints; of the holy ones), and may stand beside her within whatever matter (practice-effect; event; affair; result of a transaction) she may continue having need of [from] you folks, for she also became one who stands before many (or: a leader or presiding officer over many; = a champion, protector or patron of many) even of me, myself!


3.  Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers within Christ Jesus,

4.  who, over my soul (= person, or, life), placed their own necks under the axe, to whom not I alone am constantly giving thanks, but further, also all the called-out communities (summoned-forth congregations) of the nations (belonging to the ethnic multitudes of the Gentiles), as well as the called-out community down at their house (or: which also follow the pattern of their house-assembly).

5.  Greet Epanetus, my beloved one, who is a firstfruit of the [province of] Asia [entering] into Christ.

6.  Greet Mary (or: Mariam), who wearily labored many things unto and into you folks.

7.  Greet Andronicus and Junia (p46 and others read: Julia), my relatives (or: fellow-countrymen) and fellow-captives, who are ones bearing a distinctive mark (a sign) upon them (or: = that are well-known or famous) among those sent out with a mission (the representatives; the emissaries), ones that were birthed within Christ before me.

8.  Greet Ampliatos, my beloved within [the] Lord.

9.  Greet Urbanus, our fellow-worker within Christ, and Stachus, my beloved one.

10.  Greet Apelles, the tried and approved one in Christ.  Greet the people from out of those belonging to Aristobulus' [household] (or: from Aristobulus' folks).

11.  Greet Herodion, my relative (or: fellow-countryman).  Greet those from out of the people of Narcissus – those being within [the] Lord.

12.  Greet Tryphena and Tryphosa, the women habitually wearied and spent with labor within [the] Lord.  Greet Persida, the beloved woman who is weary from much labor within [the] Lord.

13.  Greet Rufus, the chosen one in the Lord, and his mother, and mine.

14.  Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas and the brothers (= fellow believers) with them.

15.  Greet Philogos and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas and all the set-apart (holy; sacred; different-from-what-is-common-and-usual) folks with them.

16.  Greet one another in a set-apart expression of affection (or: a holy kiss which is different from the common one).  All the called-out communities of Christ are greeting you folks.

17.  So I am calling you folks alongside to encourage and exhort [you], brothers (= fellow believers), to constantly view attentively and mark (or: watch out for) those continually causing the divisions, dissensions or standings-apart, and the snares (those occasions for stumbling and becoming entrapped; or: = obstacles and difficulties) to the side of (= which are a counterfeit of and a distraction to) the teaching which you yourselves learned by instruction, and thus you folks must slope forth (or: incline out; deflect; hold aloof) away from them (or: = shun or avoid them),

18.  for such folks are not habitually performing as slaves for our Lord Christ, but rather for their own belly (cavity; bowels or stomach; = appetite), and through the useful smooth talk (profitable words) and complimentary speech (blessings!) they continuously deceive (mislead; seduce) the hearts of the folks without malice (those with no bad qualities; blameless and innocent ones).

19.  You see, [the report of] your obedient hearing and compliance has reached (or: arrived) unto all people.  Therefore I constantly rejoice upon you (or: = over [this news of] you), yet I am wanting you folks, on the one hand, to be wise [leading] into the midst of The Good, yet, on the other hand, unmixed into the bad (mixtureless as to the worthless, evil and ugly).

20.  And now the God Who is The Peace (the God of harmony Who is the source of shalom; the God whose character and quality is this peace) will progressively rub together, trample and crush the adversary (beat the opponent to jelly; shatter satan) under your feet swiftly!  The grace and joyous favor of our Lord Jesus [is, and continues] with you folks.


21.  Timothy, my fellow-worker, is greeting you.  Also Lucius, Jason and Sosipater, my relatives (fellow-countrymen).

22.  – I, Tertius, the one [being the amanuensis (or: scribe; secretary) and] writing down the letter, am greeting you in [the] Lord –

23.  Gaisu, my host, and the whole of the called-out assembly, greets you.  Erastus, the city manager (administrator; steward) greets you.  Also Quartus, the brother.

[vs. 24 – omitted by the oldest MSS – repeats vs. 20b]


25.  Now by the One (in the One; to the One) being continuously able and powerful to set you steadfast (to make you stand firm and settled) in accord with (or: corresponding to; in the sphere of; in line with) my message of goodness and well-being – even the preaching and public heralding of the message of and from Jesus Christ – down from (in accord with; in line with) an unveiling of a secret (or: a revelation and a disclosure of a mystery) that had been being kept silent (or: quiet) in eonian times (or: for time periods of the [preceding] ages; to [the] times [that would] pertain to the Age [of Messiah]),

26.  but now is being brought to light and manifested, and through prophetic Scriptures, down from (in accord with, on the level of and in line with) a command of the eonian God

(from the God Who exists through and comprises the ages; of God in relation to the ages; or: = from the God who created, inhabits, owns and rules the ages), [which leads] into hearing obedience from faith as well as a humble listening and paying attention belonging to trust, pertaining to confidence and which comprises loyalty – suddenly being made known unto all the ethnic multitudes (nations; Gentiles; pagans; non-Israelites),

27.  by God (or: with God; in God), alone wise, through Jesus Christ, in Whom [is] the glory (by Whom [is] the reputation) on into the ages of the ages.  It is so (Count on it; Amen)!


[Written circa A.D. 57 – Based on the critical analysis of John A.T. Robinson]

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